Asphalt and Bitumen

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Author:
Marciaho
ID:
277251
Filename:
Asphalt and Bitumen
Updated:
2014-06-20 08:13:42
Tags:
Asphalt Bitumen
Folders:
Asphalt and Bitumen
Description:
Asphalt and Bitumen
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  1. History
    Application
    Investment
    Popularity
    • History- Ship Building, waterproofing, public baths
    • Application - Asphalt paving industry
    • Investment - Public and private investment
    • Popularity - 1.4 million km in NZ and Aus
  2. Refinery Operation 2 steps
    • 1. Obtain Crude petroleum
    • 2. Heat and destill
  3. Cutbacks
    Asphalt is cut with volatile substances to create more workable product at lower temperatures 

    Solvent evaporates
  4. 3 types of cures and examples
    • Rapid cure (gasoline) - tack coat
    • Medium Cure (kerosene) - prime coat
    • Slow cure (low viscosity oil)- Stock piling
  5. Emulsified Asphalt
    • Asphalt grinded down
    • Mixed with water and emulsifier 
    • To produce liquid asphalt
    • Anionic - limestone
    • Catonic - silica gels
  6. Comparison between Emulsified and Cutbacks (4 points)
    • 1.Emulsions pollution free
    • 2. Cutback- loss of high energy product
    • 3. Emulsion requires lower application temperature
    • 4. Emulsion safer and less danger of fire
  7. 3 types of setting and examples
    • 1. Rapid Setting - surface treatments E.g chip seal
    • 2.Medium Setting - open graded 
    • 3.Slow Setting -tack coats. e.g Fog Seal and Slurry Seal
  8. Chip Seal
    • Over weather surface
    • Asphalt is sprayed down and thin layer of aggregate applied

    rapid setting
  9. Fog Seal
    Slow setting

    • Light application
    • Postpone surface treatment of oxidised pavement
  10. Slurry Seal
    Slow setting

    • Low volume road
    • Homogenous mix of emulsified asphalt, well graded, fine and mineral filler
  11. Bitumen Testing (4types)
    • 1. Consistency Testing
    • 2. Durability
    • 3. Safety
    • 4. Purity
  12. Consistency Testing consists of which tests
    • Penetration Test
    • Viscosity Test
    • Ductility Test
  13. Penetration Test 
    Disadvantages and Advantages
    • Sewing machine Needle
    • Specified loading and temperature

    • Advantages
    • Gradesnear average in service Temp
    • Fast
    • Precision well established
    • Temperature susceptibility can be determined 
    • Disadvanages
    • Empirical Test
    • Doest not provide info with mix and compaction temperatures
  14. Viscosity Test
    What is it
    What are the two types
    Types of Tube Viscometer
    Absolute viscosity in poise =
    Resistance to fluid

    • 1. Absolute Viscosity (60 deg)
    • 2. Kinetic Viscosity (135)

    • Asphalt Insititute
    • Cannon-Manning
    • Cross arm viscometer

    Absolute viscosity in poise = kinematic viscosity in stokes times specific gravity
  15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Viscosity Test
    • Advantages
    • Fundamental property
    • Info for asphalt highest surface temp and mixing temp
    • Test method precision established
    • Temperature susceptability controlled

    • Disadvantages
    • Not applicable for non newtonian materials
    • More expensive than penetration
    • Takes longer
  16. Ductility Test
    • Measures distance stretched before briquette breaks
    • 25 deg using water bath
    • Two ends seperated at rate of 5cm/min
    • salt added to water to increase specific gravity
  17. Softening Point Test
    • Measure temperature which bitumen cannot support steel ball and flow
    • Start at 4 degrees and increase 5 deg per min
  18. Safety Test
    • Cleaveland Open Cup
    • Lowest Temperature at which a small test flame passing causes ignition
  19. Durability 
    Two Types
    • Short term aging
    • Long Term Aging
  20. Temperature effect
    • Hard and brittle when low,
    • soft when high
  21. Temperature Susceptability
    Penetration Index - high equals low susceptabity

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