Lower Limbs

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johndc3476
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277286
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Lower Limbs
Updated:
2014-06-25 01:54:10
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  1. 1) For an AP Projection of the Toes, where do you direct the CR and how much angle do you put on the tube?
    The CR is directed at the MTP ( Metatarsal phalangeal joint ) and angled approximately 10-15 degrees.
  2. 2) For the AP Oblique projections of the toes, approximately how much do you rotate the target toe?
    You rotate the toe about 30-45 degrees
  3. 3) If you needed to do an AP oblique projection of the 1st to 3rd digits, which way do you rotate? What if you needed to see the 4th and 5th digit?
  4. For the AP foot, your CR should be directed at..
    At the base of the third metatarsal. 10 degree angle is needed for an AP foot.
  5. 5) How much rotation is needed to obtain a good oblique of a foot? How is this different from an oblique toe projection?
  6. For the foot, the rotation you'll need is about
    • 30-40 degree rotation medially
    • For the toe it's 30-45 degree rotation DEPENDING on which digit is being targeted.
  7. 6) For a lateral projection of the foot, where is your CR directed typically?
    CR is directed at medial cuneiform ( at the level of the base of third metatarsal )
  8. 7) For the Plantodorsal axial projection ( Calcaneus ) how does one position for this view?
    Target foot needs to be dorsiflexed ( usually distal foot is taped/torniqutte(d) and pulled proximally ) in order to have the calcaneus reveal.
  9. For the calcaneous, how much do you angle the tube?
    The CR is directed ta the base of the third metatarsal with a 40 degree cepalic angle .
  10. 9) For the lateral projection of the calcaneus, where is the CR directed? What is important to remember when taking this projection as far as foot positioning?
    For the lateral projection of the calceneus, the CR is perpendicularly at 1 inch inferior to medial malleolus. The foot MUST be dorsiflexed in order to open up the joints.
  11. 10) For the AP projection of the ankle, where is the CR directed?
    For the AP projection of the ankle, the CR is directed mid malleoli at 40 SID.
  12. 11) How do you ensure that the ankles are in true AP when taking an AP projection of the ankles?
    The malleolis should not be parallel to the IR. The Lateral maleolus should be rotated about 10-15 degrees posteriorly.
  13. 12) Describe the difference between a Mortise projection and a regular Oblique projection.
    In an Mortise projection, there is only about a 15-20 degree medial rotation in order to  just open up the joint space putting both malleolis parallel to the IR. The regular oblique projection in the other hand is a whole 45 degree medial rotation.
  14. 13) For the lateral projection of the ankle, where is the CR directed?
    CR is directed at the medial malleolus.
  15. 14) For the stress test of the ankle whats the two positions needed?
    You need the inversion and eversion.
  16. 15) To get true AP of a knee, how much do you rotate the leg and which direction?
    To get a true AP projection you must rotate the leg 3-5 degrees medially.
  17. 16) Where is the CR directed for an AP knee?
    About 1/2 inch distal to the apex of patella.
  18. 17) For the oblique projections of the knee ( both lateral and medial rotations ) how far do you rotate the leg?
    For the oblique projections of the knee, you rotate about 45 degrees medially and laterally.
  19. 18) How do you position in order to get a true lateral projection of the knees?
    You must make sure femoral epicondyles are superimposed perpendicularly.
  20. 19) How much do you flex the knee for a lateral projection?
    You flex the knee about 20-30 degrees.
  21. 20) What are the two PA axial projections for the knee?
    Campy Coventry and the Homblad projection.
  22. 21) How do you position for the camp coventry projection?
    Patient must lay prone and have the leg flexed 40-50 degree
  23. 22) Where is the CR directed for a camp conventry position?
    CR is directed perpendicular to lower leg ( 40-50 degree caudal to match degree of lower leg )
  24. 23) How do you position for the homblad projection?
    The patient must bend down to a kneeling position with about a 60-70 degree flexion of the leg.
  25. 24) Where is the CR directed for the homblad position?
    The CR is directed perpendicular to lower leg at the midpopliteal crease.
  26. 25) Whats the AP axial projection of the knee also known as?
    The ap axial projection of the knee is also known as the beclere method
  27. 26) How do you position for this the Beclere method?
    For the beclere method, you flex the knee about 40 to 45 degrees.
  28. 27) How do you direct the central ray for the beclere method?
    • For the beclere method you direct the central ray 40-45 directed 1/2 inch distal to the apex of the patella.
    • You pretty much do your best to match the angle of the tube to make it perpendicular to the lower leg.
  29. 28) What are the three main sun rise methods for the patella?
    • - Inferosuperior
    • - Hughston
    • - Settegast
  30. 29) How do you position for the inferiosuperior method of the patella?
    Patient is in supine position with the knees flexed at about 40-45 degrees while they hold up the casette behind their knees.
  31. 30) How do you position for the hughston method of the patella? How is this different from the settegast method?
    • For the hughston method, patient lays prone and is given a 45 degree flexion of the knee.
    • This is different because the settegast method is a full 90 degree flexion.

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