ISO chpt 6

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FFBRASS
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ISO chpt 6
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2014-06-24 16:15:43
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  1. Imposition and Resistance of Loads

    Buildings must be built to resist what forces?
    • wind
    • snow
    • rain
    • gravity
  2. Imposition and Resistance of Loads

    The direction or application of a load to a component is called what?
    imposition
  3. Imposition and Resistance of Loads

    The stress on building materials caused by imposition is called what?
    force
  4. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is mass considered as?
    heat resistance
  5. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is heat resistance considered as?
    time
  6. Characteristics of Building Materials 

    What material type has marginal resistance to forces compared to its weight?
    wood
  7. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What are 4 basic material types?
    • wood
    • steel
    • concrete
    • masonry
  8. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What product consists of many pieces of native wood glued together to make a sheet, a long beam, or a strong column?
    engineered wood
  9. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What makes up native wood?
    • chips
    • veneers
    • saw dust
  10. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What does it take to break down the glues that bind wood products?
    only heat
  11. Characteristics of Building Materials 

    What is steel made of?
    mixture of carbon and iron ore heated and rolled
  12. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What material has excellent tensile, shear, and compressive strength?
    steel
  13. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What percent of strength does cold drawn steel (cables, bolts, rebar, and lightweight fasteners) lose at 800 degrees Fahrenheit?
    55%
  14. Characteristics of Building Materials

    At what degree Fahrenheit does cold drawn steel lose 55% of its strength?
    800 degrees F
  15. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Extruded structural steel loses what % of its strength at 1100 degrees F?
    50%
  16. Characteristics of Building Materials

    At what degree F does extruded structural steel lose 50% of its strength?
    1100 degrees F
  17. Characteristics of Building Materials

    At 1000 degrees F, how many inches can a 100' long beam elongate?
    10"
  18. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Cooling structural steel with what is just as important as attacking the fire?
    with fire streams
  19. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is concrete a mixture of?
    • Portland cement
    • sand
    • gravel
    • water
  20. Characteristics of Building Materials

    The final strength of concrete depends on the ratio of what 2 materials especially?
    water to Portland cement
  21. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What quality does concrete have when cured?
    excellent compressive strength
  22. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What material has poor tensile and shear strength?
    concrete
  23. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is added to concrete as reinforcement?
    steel
  24. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What refers to a pocket of concrete that has crumbled into fine particles through exposure to heat?
    spalling
  25. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What material is a heat sink and tends to absorb and retain heat rather than conduct it?
    concrete
  26. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is used to form load-bearing walls because of its compressive strength?
    masonry
  27. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What does masonry refer to?
    • brick
    • concrete block
    • stone
  28. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What do mortar mixes contain a mixture of?
    • lime
    • Portland cement
    • water
    • sand
  29. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What forces do Mortar mixes rely on to give a masonry wall strength??
    Compressive forces
  30. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of forces do mortar mixes rely on to give a masonry wall strength?
    compressive forces
  31. Characteristics of Building Materials

    A lateral force that exceeds the compressive forces within a masonry wall causes?
    quick collapse
  32. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What causes a masonry wall to lose its bond and be very unstable?
    • spalling
    • age deterioration
    • washout
  33. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What 2 engineered wood products make up lightweight wooden I beams ("I joists")?
    • laminated veneer lumber
    • oriented strand board
  34. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is lumber created by gluing and pressing together sheet veneers of wood (in the same grain/strand direction) called?
    laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
  35. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is a wood sheeting consisting of wood chips (strands oriented in multiple directions) and an emulsified glue called?
    oriented strand board (OSB)
  36. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What forms the top and bottom chords of an engineered wooden I beam?
    laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
  37. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is used for the web between the chords of an engineered wooden I beam?
    oriented strand board (OSB)
  38. Characteristics of Building Materialsd

    What can be mixed with wood to give it incredible tensile strength?
    fiber-reinforced plastic (FiRP)
  39. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Structural elements used to assemble a building can be defined simply as?
    • Colums
    • Beams
    • Connections
  40. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Any structural component that transmits a compressive force parallel through its center is called what?
    a column
  41. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is the guiding principle of a column?
    a column is totally in compression
  42. Characteristics of Building Materials

    A structural element that delivers loads perpendicular to its imposed load is called what?
    a beam
  43. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What force is the top of a beam subjected to?
    compressive force
  44. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What force is the bottom of a beam subjected to?
    tension
  45. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam is supported at the 2 points near its end?
    simple beam
  46. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam is supported in 3 or more places?
    continuous beam
  47. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam is supported at only one end?
    cantilever beam
  48. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam extends well past a support in such a way that the unsupported overhang places the top of the beam in tension and the bottom in compression?
    cantilever beam
  49. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam spans an opening in a load-bearing masonry wall, such as over a garage door opening (often called a "header" in street slang)?
    lintel
  50. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of beam supports other beams?
    girder beam
  51. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is the "weak link" in structural failure during fires?
    the connection
  52. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What are 3 types of connections?
    • pinned
    • rigid
    • gravity
  53. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is a series of columns and beams used to hold up a building called?
    skeletal frame or post and beam
  54. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of building construction refers to structural elements that are of an approved noncombustible or limited combustible material with sufficient fire-resistive ratings to withstand the effects of fire and prevent its spread from story to story?
    Type I: fire resistive (concrete-encased steel, monolithic-poured cement, and steel with spray-on fire protection coatings)
  55. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of building construction refers to structural elements that do not qualify for Type I construction and are of an approved noncombustible or limited combustible material with sufficient fire resistive rating to withstand the effects of fire and prevent its spread from story to story?
    Type II: noncombustible
  56. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What do Type I buildings rely on?
    protective systems
  57. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Fire spread influenced by its contents occur in what type of building?
    Type II buildings
  58. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of construction includes buildings in which the load-bearing walls are noncombustible and the roof and floor assemblies are wood?
    Type III: ordinary ("taxpayers")
  59. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of building can be spotted by decorative stars or ornaments (called spreaders) on the outside brick wall?
    Type III: ordinary ("taxpayers")
  60. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of buildings can be defined as those that have block or brick exterior load-bearing walls and interior structural members, roofs, floors, and arches of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces?
    Type IV:  heavy timber
  61. Characteristics of Building Materials

    In a heavy timber building, what is the minimum dimensions for structural wood?
    typically over 8 inches
  62. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of building is like a Type III but uses larger-dimension lumber instead of common wood beams and trusses?
    Type IV building
  63. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of buildings do some firefighters mistakenly call "mill construction"?
    Type IV buildings
  64. Characteristics of Building Materials

    A much more stout, collapse-resistive building than type IV Heavy Timber, that may or may not have block walls and is constructed without hidden voids is called what?
    mill construction
  65. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What causes fire spread to be fast in Heavy Timber building?
    wide open areas and content exposure
  66. Characteristics of Building Materials

    How do you design a heavy timber beam for it to release from the walls?
    by making a fire-cut on the beam and the beam is gravity fit into a pocket within the exterior load-bearing masonry wall
  67. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What does a masonry wall require to make it sound?
    compressive weight from floors and roofs
  68. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What is the most common construction type?
    Type V: wood frame
  69. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Wooden studs that run from the foundation to the roof, and floors are "hung" on the studs are also known as what?
    balloon frames
  70. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Some codes require truss spaces to have fire stopping every how many square feet?
    500 sq ft
  71. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Building construction methods that do not fit into the 5 classic building construction types are known as what?
    hybrid buildings
  72. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Buildings built using more than one type of method is also called what?
    hybrids
  73. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Expect rapid collapse due to the low mass, high surface to mass, exposure of structural elements in what type of buildings?
    hybrid
  74. Characteristics of Building Materials

    In a lightweight steel home, the biggest collapse threat of these buildings comes with a fire where?
    in an unfinished basement
  75. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of building uses expanded polystyrene (EPS) to form a concrete mold for walls?
    Insulated Concrete Forming (ICF)
  76. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Which type of ICF uses EPS blocks to build a wall and then concrete is poured into the small cylindrical cavities for compressive strength for the roof?
    ICF block
  77. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Which type of ICF uses sheets, spaced apart, to form a mold similar to the typical basement foundation mold and then concrete is poured into the form?
    ICF panel
  78. Characteristics of Building Materials

    What type of construction method uses panels made from OSB and EPS for load-bearing walls and roofs?
    Structural Insulated Panel (SIP)
  79. Characteristics of Building Materials

    SIP-wall consists of panels that are 2 sheets of OSB glued to both sides of an EPS sheet that is typically how many inches thick?
    6-8 inches
  80. Characteristics of Building Materials

    Extended window and door jambs that indicate the wall is thicker than that of typical wood or masonry buildings describes what type of construction method?
    SIP-wall (structural insulated panels)
  81. Predicting Collapse

    What is the 5 step approach that can help the ISO predict collapse?
    • CDVEP
    • 1. Classify the construction type
    • 2. Determine the structural involvement (read the smoke and flames)
    • 3. Visualize and trace loads
    • 4. Evaluate time
    • 5. Predict and communicate collapse potential (foundation for zoning)
  82. Predicting Collapse

    What is a significant indicator that heat and likely fire are present in that space?
    dark gray or black smoke venting under pressure from structural seams, ridge boards, eaves, and attic vents
  83. Predicting Collapse

    Structural failure is often the result of what?
    connection failure
  84. Predicting Collapse

    Trusses are considered nothing more than what?
    "fake beams"
  85. Predicting Collapse

    What are factors that can accelerate the potential collapse time?
    • low material mass or high surface to mass ratio
    • an imposed overload
    • highler BTU development (fire load)
    • alterations (undesigned loading)
    • age deterioration or lack of care and maintenance of the structure
    • firefighting impact loads (fire stream force, accumulated water, forcible entry and ventilation efforts, weight of firefighting teams
    • breakdown or loss of fire-resistive barriers
  86. Predicting Collapse

    When should firefighters performing firefighting operations under or above trusses evacuate?
    as soon as it is determined that the trusses are exposed to fire--not according to a time limit
  87. Predicting Collapse

    Areas that are exposed to trauma, debris, and/or thrust of a collapse is known as what?
    collapse zone
  88. Predicting Collapse

    A collapse zone is a more specific form of what zone?
    a no-entry zone
  89. Predicting Collapse

    When it is not possible or desirable to honor the 1.5 distance rule, what kind of approach can be considered when it is absolutely necessary to get closer?
    a flanking approach
  90. Predicting Collapse

    What should firefighters use when flanking a collapse zone?
    spotters
  91. Predicting Collapse

    What observations make collapse-likelihood obvious?
    • deterioration of mortar joints and masonry
    • signs of building repair,including reinforcing cables and tie-rods
    • bulges and bowing of walls
    • sagging floors
    • abandoned buildings with missing roof, wall or floor segments 
    • large volumes of fire impinging on structural components and spaces
    • multiple fires in the same building or damage from previous fires
  92. Predicting Collapse

    Defensive operations should be the default for what type of fires?
    construction site fires
  93. Predicting Collapse

    What is the best approach for firefighters when responding to fires in buildings under construction?
    Be defensive

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