A&P Chapter 60

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  1. What are the two systems of the Efferent System? What do they innervate?
    • 1: Autonomic (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands)
    • 2: Somatic (skeletal muscle)
  2. What are the two systems of the autonomic nervous system?
    • 1) Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • 2) Sympathetic Nervous System
  3. Is the ANS involuntary or voluntary control? Somatic?
    • ANS: involuntary
    • Somatic: voluntary
  4. Describe the neural pathway of a neuron in the somatic pathway
    • CNS (ventral root) -->
    • myelinated axon -->
    • nicotinic receptor on skeletal muscle
  5. A somatic nerve on a skeletal muscle is excitatory/inhibitory or both?
    always excitatory
  6. What is the primary neurotransmitter in the somatic system?
  7. Describe the neural pathway of a ANS-SNS neuron
    • T1-L3 -->
    • short preganglionic myelinated axon -->
    • nicotinic receptor @ ganglion -->
    • longer demyelinated postganglionic axon -->
    • adrenergic effector
  8. Describe the neural pathway of a ANS-PNS neuron
    • CN 3,7,9,10, SN 2,3,4 -->
    • long preganglionic myelincated axon -->
    • nicotinic receptor @ ganglion -->
    • shorter demyelinated postganglionic axon -->
    • muscarinic receptor on effector
  9. The autonomic nervous system produces an excitatory/inhibitory/or both response on the effector?
    Both - depending on whether the stimulation is sympathetic or parasympathetic
  10. What are the primary neurotransmitters of the ANS?
    Acetylecholine and Norepinephrine
  11. What are the 3 divisions of the ANS?
    Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Enteric
  12. What is the highest level of ANS integration?
    cerebral cortex
  13. Hypothalamic nuclei are responsible for:
    body response to stress, blood pressure control, temp regulation
  14. Medulla and pons responsible for:
    • hemodynamic and ventilatory control
    • integrating and maintaining the automaticity of ventilation
  15. What is the difference in terms of quality of response of the SNS and PNS?
    • SNS = mass reflex responses
    • PNS = much more limited response
  16. What are the 3 different types of ganglia?
    • 1) 22 paired vertebral column
    • 2) unpaired prevertebral ganglia
    • 3) terminal ganglia
  17. Describe the innervation of the adrenal gland
    • Spinal cord -->
    • preganglionic myelinated axon -->
    • SNS stimulation of nicotinic receptor -->
    • intracellular transition to post ganglionic -->
    • release of Epinepherine (80%) and Norepinephrine AS HORMONES
  18. What is the difference between NE as a neurotransmitter and NE as a hormone?
    NE as a hormone is released directly into the blood stream - prolonged response d/t the time need for the metabolism by COMT (catecholamine-o-methyltransferase)
  19. What are the different types of adrenergic receptors?
    a1, a2, b1, b2
  20. What does stimulation of an a2 receptor cause?
    • Stimulation on the a2 receptor of a presynaptic cell -->
    • activation of negative feedback system -->
    • decreased NE released
  21. Where are beta 1 receptors located?
    heart and fat cells
  22. What is beta 1 activation cause in the heart?
    increased HR, increased contractility, increased conduction velocity
  23. Where all are Beta 2 receptors located?
    • blood vessels (esp coronary and skeletal arteries)
    • bronchioles
    • uterus
    • kidneys
    • liver
    • pancreas
  24. What does stimulation of Beta 2 do to the blood vessels?
  25. What does stimulation of beta 2 do to the bronchioles?
  26. What does stimulation of beta 2 do to the uterus?
  27. What does stimulation of beta 2 do to the liver?
    glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis
  28. Where are alpha 1 receptors located?
    • blood vessels
    • pancreas
    • intestine and bladder
  29. What does alpha 1 activation do to blood vessels?
  30. What does alpha 1 activation do to the pancreas?
    inhibition of insulin secretion
  31. Where are alpha 2 receptors located?
    • postganglionic presynaptic sympathetic nerve ending 
    • CNS
    • Platelets
  32. What does activation of alpha 2 in the CNS cause?
    increase in potassium conductance --> hyper polarization --> sedation
  33. What does activation of alpha 2 on platelets cause?
  34. Describe the steps to the synthesis of Norepinephrine
    • 1) tyrosine is actively transported in to the adrenergic presynaptic nerve terminal cytoplasm
    • 2) tyrosine is converted into dopamine (2 steps in the cytoplasm)
    • 3) Dopamine is transported into the vesicles 
    • 4) Dopamine is B-hydroxylated to NE
  35. Describe the metabolism of Norepinephrine (3 diff ways)
    • 1) Reuptake into the presynaptic terminal for reuse (primary mechanism)
    • 2) metabolism by COMT (in blood) and MAO (in presynaptic nerve terminal)
    • 3) Diffusion away from synaptic cleft
  36. What enzyme converts NE to E?
    PNM - Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase
  37. How does cortisol affect PNM?
    cortisol enhances PNM
  38. Which nerve controls 75% of the PNS?
  39. CN III innervates ______
    the eye
  40. CN VII innervates the _______
    lacrimal, nasal, and submaxillary glands
  41. CN IX innervates the ___
    parotid gland
  42. CN X innervates the _____
    thoracic and abdominal regions of the body
  43. Where does the synthesis of acetylcholine occur?
    presynaptic cytoplasm of preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings
  44. Describe the synthesis of Ach
    • In the presynaptic cytoplasm
    • Acetyl CoA + Choline via CAT

    • Acetyl CoA is synthesized in mitochondria
    • Choline enters cell from ECF via active transport
  45. What are the 2 exceptions to the Sympathetic Nervous System (as far as pathway)? how are they different?
    1) Sympatho-adrenal branch: preganglionic cholinergic nerve directly innervates the medulla --> release of Epi and NE as hormones

    2) Sympatho-cholinergic: cholinergic (as opposed to adrenergic)
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A&P Chapter 60
2014-06-24 16:37:40
The Autonomic Nervous System
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