no definite definition exists for this system used in America for Deaf persons
(users have diff opinions on its techniques)
two major contributors of ASL
Laurent Clerc and the Vineyarders
first deaf teacher of the deaf in the US
brough FSL to America
ASL has evolved from this blend called...?
brought in US by Clerc
Old French Sign Language
"dialect" used in the communities of Chilmarks and West Tisbury on Martha's Vineyard
native sign language used before Clerc arrived
indigenous sign language
French Sign Language (FSL)
a "subordinate" languages picks up words and usages from a "dominant" language
what was sign language considered by some "well-meaning" hearing teachers
labeled the third most widely used language in the US (arguably)
no statistics available
used also as underwater communication
Century and location of the first classroom of ASL history
Harford Connecticut early 19th Century
graduate of Yale who taught FSL with Clerc at the Amercian Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb Persons
later FSL was abandoned for ASL
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
linguist who subjected ASL into a language
William C. Stokoe
students who had lost their hearing after learning how to talk, or those with moderate hearing loss
established the first Deaf church in the States (St. Ann's)
the world's first liberal-arts college for the deaf
periodicals originating from the printrooms of the schools for the deaf
"Little Paper Family"
era which produced a class of highly-educated, skilled deaf people who were bilingual (sign and written English)
"Golden Age of Deaf Culture"
US president who visited "Old Hartford"
pupils invented the sign for "president"
also first president to have direct contact and real communication with a deaf person
President James Monroe
squeezing both hands into fists while moving them outward and upward from the temples in a single brisk motion
sign for president
an invented sign system that is not standard
an "artificial" international vocabulary, which functions as a kind of visual Esperanto
developed in 1970s by World Federation of the Deaf's Commission on Unification of Signs
Is there a clear notion of how deaf people look like for hearing people?
Not until they are seen communicating in Sign
a way of translating "flat copy" (written media) into a tactile form: raised dots in a matrix pattern read with the fingertips
Who invented FSL?
first hearing person to go to the Deaf community, to learn its language, to let deaf people teach him
founded Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets
developed "methodical signs"
Abbé de l'Epée
signs from FSL with added set of signs; augmented
the use of the native sign language to teach the native written language
"silent" or "natural" method
the first truly educated Deaf person
one indirect link between ASL and BSL
"Martha's Vineyard dialect"
location of highly dense Deaf population
traced from the Kentish district of England, known as Weald
a form of sign language used in Kent that evolved into the Vineyard dialect
"Old Kentish Sign Language"
family that maintained a profitable monopoly on deaf education in the British Isles
the crucial distinction that changed the course of Deaf history
Epée wanted education to be available to deaf children; Brainwoods wanted profit
the cause of BSL to go underground and deaf education to go downhill in 1880
The Congress of Milan
probably the first of the modern royals to take the time and trouble to learn BSL
the generally preferred order of ASL sentence structure
feature that is lacking in English language
invented sign systems that depict English vocabulary and grammatical structure
Manually Coded English (MCE)
Sign language is this type of language.
the use of English words when trying to translate the meaning of ASL signs and ASL sentences
pioneer researcher of ASL who achieved linguistic respect for ASL as a distinct and living language
published first ASL dictionary in 1965
Dr. William C. Stokoe
the five parameters of sign developed by Dr. Stokoe
handshape, palm orientation, location, movement, and repetition
bilingual newspaper published by Valerie Sutton using an ASL-based pictographic code
The Sign Writer
a Deaf professor and linguist from Arizona who created a modified ASL-writing system to successfully help young deaf children learn English
How do deaf people learn sign language?
From each other
what is the easiest way and the first best method to become proficient in ASL?
Total immersion in the language by living with Deaf people
Second best method of learning ASL.
through everyday social contact with ASL users
Third best method of learning ASL.
Associate with ASL users in office or classroom
Fourth best method of learning ASL.
through an electronic medium such as video or CD-ROM
Can people who are deaf from birth appreciate jokes and puns that involve homonyms (sound-alike words)?
No, deaf people cannot understand an "oral-based" humor.
What does real Deaf humor encompass?
mime, gesture, cinematic effects (like zooming, close-ups, fast and slow motion), and a lot of spontaneous sign-play
according to the stereotypical and much-quoted pseudo-statistic on Deaf literacy, English skills halt at what grade level?
third to fifth-grade level
Are there such things as accents among signers from different areas of the country or world?
Yes! Every signer signs differently.
What type of sign language was considered correct, educated, and "high-class"? (no longer considered)
What is the normal "signing space"?
space that extends from the top of the head to the waist, and from shoulder to shoulder
What president popularized the ILY (I Love You) sign?
most numbers are signed on one hand, with the exception of these two...
"thousand" and "million"
When should children start learning how to fingerspell?
preschool or first grade
When is Sign Language very useful?
Emergency (when voice is absent) and/or Underwater
Acronym for children of deaf parents
Is fingerspelling the same as Sign Language?
No, it is a component of Sign Language
Who invented fingerspelling in the 16th century?
Spanish Benedictine Monks
(True/False) ASL is quite similar to BSL, just as spoken/written American English is very close to British English.
(True/False) Although there is no single sign language used by Deaf People around the world, various forms of "international sign language" exist.
(True/False) Most Deaf people know how to sign in Braille
(True/False) The Abbe de l'Epee was the first educator who recognized that sign language was the natural language of the deaf, but thought that it was a collection of signs without grammatical structure.
(True/False) All sign languages have the same basic structure--the subject first.
(True/False) Various writing systems have been developed for ASL, but outside of textbooks, none are in very wide use.
(True/False) Deaf children usually learn sign language from each other.
(True/False) ASL has no real regional variations or accents, since it isn't a spoken language.
(True/False) Signers are changing the stereotypic and prejudicial quality of some racial/ethnic signs to reflect a more positive view of racial and ethnic diversity and cultural heritage.
(True/False) The "ILY" sign has been in widespread use since WWII.