ISO chpt 7

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  1. Reading Smoke

    What are 4 key attributes of smoke leaving a structure?
    • volume
    • velocity (pressure)
    • density
    • color
  2. Reading Smoke

    What is the definition of smoke?
    The product of incomplete combustion (including an aggregate of solids, aerosols, and fire gases that are toxic, flammable, and volatile)
  3. Reading Smoke

    What do solids suspended in a thermal plume include?
    • carbon (soot and ash)
    • dust
    • airborne fibers
  4. Reading Smoke

    What do smoke aerosols include?
    • hydrocarbons (oils and tar)
    • moisture
  5. Reading Smoke

    What are 5 leading fire gases?
    • carbon monoxide (CO)
    • hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
    • acrolein
    • hydrogen sulfide
    • benzene
  6. Reading Smoke

    What is extremely flammable and ultimately dictates fire behavior in a building?
  7. Reading Smoke

    What are 2 triggers that cause accumulated smoke to ignite?
    • right temperature
    • right mixture
  8. Reading Smoke

    Smoke tells you how intense the fire is about to become as opposed to what?
    as opposed to how bad it currently is
  9. Hostile Fire Events

    What are 4 common hostile fire events?
    • flashover
    • backdraft
    • smoke explosion
    • rapid fire spread
  10. Hostile Fire Events

    When does backdraft occur?
    When oxygen is introduced into an environment where fire gases are above their ignition temperature and have been trapped in a box
  11. Hostile Fire Events

    What hostile fire event occurs when a spark or flame is introduced into trapped smoke that is below its ignition temperature but above its flashpoint?
    a smoke explosion
  12. Hostile Fire Events

    What is a late sign of impending backdraft?
    sucking of air
  13. Hostile Fire Events

    What is a dangerously late warning sign?
    sensation of heat
  14. Hostile Fire Events

    The ISO must take a proactive approach by watching the 4 smoke attributes and determining what 3 things about a fire in a building?
    • location
    • stage
    • spread potential
  15. Hostile Fire Events

    What kind of fire shows a tremendous volume of smoke?
    hot, fast moving fire in an underventilated building
  16. Hostile Fire Events

    What can create an impression of the fire?
    the volume of smoke
  17. Hostile Fire Events

    What are 2 things that can cause smoke to pressurize in a building?
    heat or smoke volume
  18. Hostile Fire Events

    What causes the velocity of smoke leaving a building to rise and then slow gradually?
  19. Hostile Fire Events

    What causes smoke to immediately slow down and become balanced with outside airflow?
    restricted volume
  20. Hostile Fire Events

    What is turbulent smoke flow a precursor to?
  21. Hostile Fire Events

    What is the movement of smoke through a building that is rapid and violent and has expansive velocity known as?
    turbulent smoke flow
  22. Hostile Fire Events

    Agitated, boiling, or angry smoke is also referred to as what?
    turbulent smoke flow
  23. Hostile Fire Events

    What is the expansion of the gases in the smoke caused by?
    radiant heat feedback from the box itself
  24. Hostile Fire Events

    What is the smooth and stable flow of smoke through a building called?
    laminar smoke flow
  25. Hostile Fire Events

    What is the most important smoke observation?
    whether the flow is turbulent or laminar
  26. Hostile Fire Events

    How can a fire officer determine the location of a fire?
    By comparing the velocity of smoke at different openings of the building
  27. Hostile Fire Events

    When comparing velocities to find the location of a fire, what type of openings do you compare?
    only like-resistive openings
  28. Hostile Fire Events

    What does the thickness of the smoke tell you?
    how much fuel is laden in the smoke
  29. Hostile Fire Events

    What does thick, black smoke in a compartment reduce the chance of?
    life sustainability
  30. Hostile Fire Events

    What does smoke color tell an ISO?
    • stage of heating
    • location of fire in a building
    • distance to a fire
  31. Hostile Fire Events

    When does virtually all solid materials emit a white smoke?
    when first heated
  32. Hostile Fire Events

    When do flames almost immediately off-gas black smoke?
    When they touch surfaces that are not burning
  33. Hostile Fire Events

    What does fast moving white smoke indicate?
    that the smoke has traveled some distance
  34. Hostile Fire Events

    The hotter the smoke is, what color does it become?
    more black
  35. Hostile Fire Events

    At what velocity and what density is black smoke?
    • high velocity
    • low density
  36. Hostile Fire Events

    White smoke that is slow and lazy is indicative of what stage of heating?
    early-stage heating
  37. Hostile Fire Events

    What color does unfinished wood give off when it approaches late-stage heating (just prior to flaming)?
    brown smoke
  38. Hostile Fire Events

    What does brown smoke from structural spaces indicate?
    fire is transitioning from a contents fire to a structural fire
  39. Hostile Fire Events

    Brown smoke that comes from gable-end vents, eaves, and floor seams is a warning sign of what?
    impending collapse
  40. Hostile Fire Events

    When smoke appears with the same color and velocity from multiple openings, what kind of fire does that indicate?
    a deep seated fire
  41. Hostile Fire Events

    What is the slang term used to describe high-volume, turbulent, ultra-dense and deep black smoke?
    black fire
  42. Hostile Fire Events

    What is a sure sign of impending autoignition and flashover?
    black fire
  43. Hostile Fire Events

    What temperatures can black fire reach?
    over 1000 degrees F
  44. Hostile Fire Events

    In a black fire, what causes all the destruction that flames would cause?
    the smoke itself
  45. Hostile Fire Events

    No firefighter should be in or near compartments emitting black fire.
  46. Other Factors that Influence Smoke

    What 4 factors can change the appearance of smoke?
    • weather
    • thermal balance
    • container size
    • firefighting efforts
  47. Other Factors that Influence Smoke

    What is virtually every element of smoke heavier than?
  48. Other Factors that Influence Smoke

    In what kind of manner should all 4 attributes of smoke change if fire stream and ventilation efforts are appropriate?
    in a positive, continuous manner
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ISO chpt 7
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