Radiology 2

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thapajeewann
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277567
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Radiology 2
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2014-06-25 05:39:06
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Radiology principles
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  1. Atomic number corresponds to: [PGI 01]
    A. No. of protons
    B. No. of neutrons
    C. Electrons + protons
    D. No. of electrons
    A. No. of protons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Nuclues of an atom contains:
    A. Neutrons
    B. Protons
    C. Both neutrons and protons
    D. Electrons
    C. Both neutrons and protons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What do TR and TE in MRI image mean? [IOM 11]
    • TE is Echo Time. It represents the time in milliseconds between the application of the 90o pulse and the peak of the echo signal in Spin echo and inversion recovery pulse sequences.
    • TR is Repetition Time. It is the amount of time that exists between the successive pulse sequences applied to the same slice.
  4. Which one of the following is the contrast used in MRI scan: [PGI 2000]
    A. Strontium
    B. Rose bengal
    C. Iodine
    D. Gadolinium
    D. Gadolinium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. CT is better over MRI [IOM 10]
    A) Ankle sprain
    B) Shoulder dislocation
    C) Vertebral disc prolapse
    D) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    D) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following is naturally occurring radioactive substance in the body found in small quantities: [JIPMER 02]
    A. Iodine 131
    B. Radium 226
    C. Bismuth 60
    D. Potassium 40
    D. Potassium 40

    Radiation originating in the body comes mainly from radioactive potassium, which emits Beta and alpha rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Radium emits:
    A. X-ray
    B. Gamma rays
    C. Electrons
    D. Alpha rays
    D. Alpha rays

    - It emits alpha rays forming the gas radon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Neutron emitting radioisotope used in radiotherapy:
    A. Helium
    B. californium
    C. Polonium
    D. Strontium
    B. Californium

    Californium252:
    - half life- 2.6yrs
    - unusually high rate of spontaneous fission, with an abundant emission of neutrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Radioisotope displacing calcium from body:
    Strontium
  10. Half life of 99m Tc is [AI 93, JIPMER 02]
    A. 8 hrs
    B. 6 hrs
    C. 2 hrs
    D. 4 hrs
    B. 6 hrs

    The advent of 99m Tc scanning allowed a marked reduction in radiation dose to the patient because of its 6-hr half life and favorable decay scheme without particulate emission
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Half-life of cobalt 60 is:
    A. 5.2 yrs
    B. 2.6yrs
    C. 3200 yrs
    D. 270 days
    A. 5.7 yrs

    Cobalt 60 produces intense gamma radiation [PGI 90]
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Half life of Cobalt 57 is:
    A. 2.6 yrs
    B. 270 days
    C. 5.2 yrs
    D. 3200 yrs
    B. 270 days
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Half life of I 131 is: [AI 1994]
    A. 4 hrs
    B. 4 days
    C. 10 days
    D. 8 days
    D. 8 days
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Half life of Rn 222 is
    A. 4 days
    B. 3.8 days
    C. 6 days
    D. 5 days
    B. 3.8 days
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Longest half-life is of:
    A. Cesium
    B. Radon
    C. Uranium
    D. Radium
    D. Radium

    Radium-266: half-life 1640 years
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Isotope used in pancreatic scanning:
    Se 75
  17. Isotope used in bone scanning:
    Technetium (Tc99m MDP and PYP)
  18. Technetium labeled RBC is used for: [AI 95]
    A. Biliary tree
    B. Renal disease
    C. Splenic disease
    D. Pulmonary embolism
    C. Splenic disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Radioactive metal used for venticulography is:
    • Tc 99m
    • Tc 99m labeled red blood cells are injected into the patient where they equilibrate within the intra-vascular space and define the great vessels and the four chambers of the heart.
  20. Dye used for myelography is:
    A. Conray (Iothalamate)
    B. Metrizamide
    C. Dianosil
    D. Iopanoic acid
    B. Metrizamide

    - Myelography is radiography of the spinal cord and associated nerves after intrathecal injection of a radiopaque water-soluble contrast medium (metrizamide).
    - Iopanic acid: oral cystographic agent - for GB
    - Dianosil (propyl iodine) - for bronchography
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Residual mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymphoma is best assessed by: [JIPMER 02]
    A. Gallium scan
    B. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate scan
    C. Restaging procedure
    D. Bipedal lymphangiogram
    A. Gallium scan

    Gallium scan are most useful at the completion of therapy to document remission.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Safe maximum dose of radiation per year in human beings is: [AI 92]
    5 rads/year
  23. Cell which inmost sensitive to radiation is:
    A. Lymphocyte
    B. Neutrophil
    C. Platelet
    D. Basophil
    A. Lymphocyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Pizoelectric crystals
    - used in transducer of USG

    - PZT: Lead Zirconate Titanate) is polarized ceramic (though called crystal) used in USG transducer
  25. Hertz is a unit of:
    Frequency
  26. Ultrasound refers to the sound waves with a frequency of:
    A. 200/sec
    B. More than 20,000/sec
    C. 20-200/sec
    D. 20/sec
    B. More than 20,000/sec

    Infrasound: <20/sec
    Audible: 20- 20,000/sec (20Hz-20KHz)
    Ultrasound: >20,000/sec
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Real time sector scanning of neonates is preferred because of which of the following practical reason: [PGI 95]
    A. Neonates are more cooperative
    B. Open fontanelles
    C. Better resolution
    D. Inexpensive
    B. Open fontanelles

    - Real time sonographic sector scanner can use the anterior fontanelle as an acoustic window
    - It has a wide field of view and requires only a small acoustic window (unlike other USG machines)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which is not mutagenic: [PGI 93]
    A. X-rays
    B. Ultravoilet rays
    C. Ultrasound
    D. Beta rays
    C. Ultrasound

    - Mutation is produced only by ionizing radiations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Deleterious effect of ultrasound on small organism is:
    A. Cavitation
    B. Vacuolation
    C. Disintegration
    D. Ionization
    A. Cavitation

    - Some mechanisms for producing biological effects with ultrasound at therapy intensity levels include significant local heating, cavitation (bubble formation, collapse and oscillation) and micro-streaming (flow of bubbles)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Microwaves cause:
    A. Retinal detachment
    B. Convulsions
    C. Microscopic hemorrhages
    D. Heating up of tissues
    D. Heating up of tissues

    - High density microwave radiations like MASERS can cause burns, cataracts, damage to the nervous system and sterility.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Radiation exposure does not occur in: [AI 1993]
    A. CT scan
    B. MRI scan
    C. Plain X-ray
    D. Fluoroscopy
    B. MRI scan
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. NMR is based on principle of:
    A. Proton
    B. Neutron
    C. Electron
    D. Microwaves
    A. Proton

    - It is based on magnetic movement of nucleus
    -
    The images are produced due to H+.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. NMR spectroscopy is based on the principle of [AI 91]
    A) Emission of protons
    B) Diffusion of protons
    C) Absorption of protons
    D) Quantum state changes of protons
    D) Quantum state changes of protons

    The strength of the MRI signals reflect the rate of Quantum state change of protons (Hydrogen ion). These transitions occur very slowly, on a time scale of 10th of seconds to seconds for most biological materials.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The theory of nuclear magnetic resonance was elucidated by:
    Edward Purcell
  35. Contraindication for the use of NMR imaging is:
    A. Patients receiving radiotherapy
    B. Patients on lithium
    C. Intracranial metallic aneurysm clips
    D. Psychotic patients
    C. Intracranial metallic aneurysm clips

    NMR= Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, nowadays k/a MRI
    Contraindications:
    - Intracranial metallic aneurysm clips
    - Intra-orbital metallic foci
    - Cardiac pacemakers
    - Specific types of cardiac valves
    Relative C/I:
    - Claustrophobic pt
    - Uncooperative pt not responding to conscious sedation protocols
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Nuclear medicine is the term used for:
    A. Treatment by radiation
    B. Using radium for diagnosis
    C. Nucleic acid analysis
    D. X-rays
    A. Treatment by radiation

    Nuclear medicine is the medical speciality that uses radioactive substances or radiopharmaceuticals, combined with imaging techniques to diagnose and treat injury or disease, such as sports injuries, heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Who invented
    Stethoscope
    Ophthalmoscope
    Microscope?
    • Laennec: Stethoscope
    • Helmholtz: Ophthalmoscope
    • ............. : Microscope
  38. CT scan:
    • - Invented by Godfrey Hounsfield [SGPGI 99]
    • - First CT scanner manufactured by Electro-Musical Instruments(EMI), England
    • - Unit of density of body tissues in CT scan: Hounsfield units

    • CT numbers (attenuation coefficient) expressed in Hounsfield units and compared according to Hounsfield scale:

    • Air: -1000
    • Water: 0
    • Soft tissue: +40 to +80
    • Bone: +1000 to +3000
  39. On usual CT scale of densities (-1000 to +1000), brain tissues measures:
    A. 0 to +20
    B. +22 to +46
    C. -10 to +10
    D. +1- to +30
    B. +22 to +46
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Most radiodense substance is:
    A. Soft tissue
    B. Brain
    C. Bone
    D. Fluid
    C. Bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Radioactivity:
    • - is spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei by emission of subatomic particles called alpha particles and beta particles, or of electromagnetic rays called X-rays and gamma rays
    • - Discovered by Henri Becquerel in 1896
    • - In 1898, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie deduced that radioactivity is a phenomenon associated with atoms, independent of their physical or chemical state
  42. X-rays
    • - electromagnetic waves [JIPMER 92]with shorter wavelength than light
    • - produced by bombarding a target, usually made up of Tungsten, with high-speed electrons
    • - the shorter the wave length, the greater is the penetrating power [SGPGI 99]

    • Soft X-rays: longer wavelength X-rays near the UV-ray band of electromagnetic spectrum
    • Hard X-rays: Shorter wavelength X-rays, closer to and overlapping Gamma-rays

    • Monochromatic X-ray: Single wavelength X-ray
    • White X-ray: Mixture of different wavelengths
  43. Xeroradiography is used in ........ cancer detection:
    A. Stomach
    B. Breast
    C. Colonic
    D. Pancreatic
    B. Breast

    - was used previously, but nowadays replaced by film and screen mammography because of its high radiation dose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Radiation protection shield is made up of:
    • Lead
    • Apron: 0.5mm
    • Wall: 1-1.5mm
  45. Optical activity of organic substances is measured by:
    A. Polarimeter
    B. Photometer
    C. Multimeter
    D. Spectrometer
    A. Polarimeter

    - Optically active substances rotate the plane of linearly polarized light
    - Amount of rotation of the analyzer required to restore the extinction of the light determines the concentration of the solution (principle of polarimeter)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Medical thermography is based on the principle of man emitting:
    A. Ultraviolet radiation
    B. Infrared radiation
    C. Ultrasonic rays
    D. X-ray
    B. Infrared radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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