Anatomy week

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Sheilaj
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277606
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Anatomy week
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2014-06-26 18:23:48
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science AIM TERMS
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terms from the first week of AIM program
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  1. same side
    Ipsilateral
  2. opposite side
    Contralateral
  3. paired structures
    Bilateral
  4. structure
    on one side
    unilateral
  5. (superior) head, top
    Cranial
  6. inferior- towards the bottom
    Caudal
  7. Back-posterior
    dorsal
  8. front- anterior
    Ventral
  9. flexing at the ankle upward
    dorsiflexion
  10. foot and toes flexed toward the ground
    plantarflexion
  11. hard, white, protective. living tissue under constant remodeling
    bone
  12. resides
    in the new bone
    Osteocytes
  13. make
    new bone
    oseteoblasts
  14. removes
    old or damaged bone
    osteoclasts
  15. minerals of the bone
    calcium and phosphate
  16. Fibrous
    protein that gives support and firmness to body tissue and bones
    collagen
  17. outer surface of the bone, thin dense
    membrane contains nerve and blood cells
    periosteum
  18. smooth and very hard part of the bone
    Compact/Cortical(Hard)
  19. spongy
    substance of the bone
    cancellous
  20. thick jelly-like substance, makes blood cells
    bone marrow
  21. includes a diaphysis and two epiphysis
    long bone
  22. type of bone that's generally curved (Skull, sternum)
    flat bone
  23. Gristle, firm flexible substance that provides structural support, cells, collagen,
    matrix
    Cartilage
  24. cartilage most common and found at end of bones
    hyaline
  25. very flexible (ear) cartilage
    Elastic
  26. by IV disks-high pressure
    Fibrocartilage
  27. located where 2+ bones contact, allow movement and support
    Joints
  28. Gliding,hinge, pivot, saddle, ball and socket, compound joint
    Synovial
  29. a
    smooth lubricated surface for movement, allows a weight or load to disperse out
    the bone of the bone
    capsule
  30. provides
    separation for movement, fluid control of the knee
    synovial membrane
  31. smooth
    bone movement of the knee
    articular cartilage
  32. for
    stability limits movement for the knee
    circular ligament
  33. protects the ends of the bone
    meniscus
  34. allows
    movement for skin, muscle, and ligament over the bone of the knee
    Bursa
  35. knee bone
    patella
  36. connects
    muscle to bone; also withstands tension
    tendon
  37. smaller
    lower leg bone of the knee
    fibula
  38. thigh bone
    femur
  39. largest lower leg bone
    tibia
  40. Fixed
    connected by fibrous CT
    fibrous joint
  41. joint between tooth and jaw
    Gomphosis
  42. joint between bones of skull
    Suture
  43. fibrous tissue that connects 2 bones in the middle joint
    syndesmosis
  44. joints-connected
    by cartilage, mobile, adjacent vertebrae. Connects ribs to sternum; Symphysis pubis
    Cartilaginous joints
  45. Bones of the upper limb
    Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, metacarpals
  46. major parts of the scapula
    • acromion process, coracoid process, glenoid cavity, supraspinous fossa, spine of the
    • scapula, medial border.
  47. joint of the upper limb
    sternoclavicular joint
  48. Carpals of the wrist
    Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
  49. bones of the hand
    Carpals, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, intermediate phalanges, distal phalanges
  50. ball and socket, head of humerus w/ glenoid cavity of scapula
    Glenohumeral joint
  51. joint between acromion process and clavicle
    acromioclavicular joint
  52. joint between sternum and clavicle
    sternoclavicular
  53. hinge, consist of humerous connecting w/ the olecranon process of the ulna
    elbow joint
  54. pivot joint, head of the ulna in the ulnar notch of the radius
    Distal Radial-Ulnar Joint
  55. Condyloid joint, formed by the radius bones in the proximal carpal
    Radio-Carpal Joint
  56. joint between the metacarpals and carpals
    carpal metacarpal joint
  57. between distal and intermediate carpal
    Distal interphalangeal joint
  58. between proximal and intermediate carpal
    Proximal interphalangeal joint
  59. ligament between acromion process and calvicle
    acromioclavicular ligament
  60. between coracoid process and acromion process
    coracoacromial ligament
  61. ligament between coracoid process and humerus
    coracohumeral ligament
  62. used for posture and motion and us under conscious control-muscle
    skeletal muscle
  63. muscle chain
    • Muscle > Fascicle > Muscle Fiber > Myofibril > Sarcomere > thin (actin)
    • & thick (myosin)
  64. found in internal organs and is not under conscious control
    smooth muscle (involuntary)
  65. muscle that resides around the walls of the heart
    cardiac muscle
  66. Shoulder Abduction, flexion and extension-muscle
    deltoid
  67. flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm
    biceps brachii
  68. elbow flexion
    brachioradiallis
  69. extends forearm
    triceps
  70. group of muscle and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder
    rotator cuff
  71. responsible for the first 15 degrees of Abduction (on top) of shoulder
    supraspinatus
  72. lateral rotation of the arm(the back)
    infraspinatus
  73. medially rotates the arm (the front)
    subscapularis
  74. rotation of the arm
    teres minor
  75. extends and ADducts the wrists
    Extensor carpi ulnaris
  76. extends and ABducts the wrists
    Extensor carpi radialis
  77. extends the fingers
    Extensor digitorum
  78. little finger extension
    Extensor digiti minimi
  79. flexes wrist, 10% of pop. doesn't have this
    Palmaris Longus
  80. flexes and ADducts the wrist
    Flexor carpi ulnaris
  81. flexes and ABducts the wrist
    Flexor carpi radialis
  82. flexes the fingers
    Flexor digitorum-profundus
  83. Bones of the thorax
    clavicle, sternum, Ribs, scapula, vertebral column
  84. parts of vertebral column
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
  85. # of cervical vertebrae
    7
  86. #of thoracic vertebrae
    12
  87. # of sacral vertebrae
    5 fused to 1
  88. #of lumbar vertebrae
    5
  89. # of coccygeal vertebrae
    4 fused to 1
  90. how many true ribs
    7 (1-7)
  91. false ribs
    5 (8-12)
  92. floating ribs
    2 (11-12)
  93. parts of the sternum
    manubrium, body, xiphoid process
  94. parts of the vertebrae
    Spinous process, Lamina Superior articular processes, Pedicles, Transvers processes
  95. ADducts and medially rotates the humerus, draws the scapular ant. and inf.
    pectoralis major
  96. depresses the point of the shoulder drawing the scapula inferior and medial
    Pectoralis minor
  97. Protects and stabilizes the scapula, assisting in upward rotation
    Serratus Anterior
  98. flexion of the trunk and lumber vertebrae
    Rectus Abdominus
  99. rotates torso
    external oblique
  100. compresses abdomen and rotates the vertebral column
    internal oblique
  101. elevates and depresses the scapula
    trapezium
  102. extension, ADduction
    and internal rotation of the shoulder joint
    Latissimus Dorsi
  103. lifts the scapula
    levator scapulae
  104. hold the scapula on the rib cage, retracts the scapula onto the ribcage
    Rhomboids
  105. spine extension
    Erector Spinae
  106. Bones of the Pelvis
    ilium, ischium, Pubis
  107. supports abdominopelvic viscera, resistance to increase intra-pelvic/abdominal pressure,
    urinary/fecal continence.
    pelvic floor
  108. flexes and rotates thigh literally
    psoas major and iliacus
  109. weak trunk flexor
    psoas minor
  110. work together to perform the action of flexion of the hip ( Illiacus + Psoas)
    iliopsoas
  111. flexion, Abduction and lateral rotation of the hip, flexion of the knee, “tailors’s
    ribbon”
    Sartorius
  112. parts of the femur
    • proximal:
    • head, neck, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter
    • shaft
    • distal: medial/lateral condyle,
    • medial/lateral epicondyles
  113. main
    extensor of the thigh, assists with lateral rotation
    gluteus maximus
  114. ABducts and
    medially rotates lower limb, secures the pelvis
    gluteus medius
  115. ABducts and
    medially rotates the lower limb, secures the pelvis
    gluteus minimus
  116. longest
    muscle in the body, flexes hip joint and flexes knee joint (anterior)
    sartorius
  117. 4 muscles that extend the leg at the knee joint (anterior)
    quadriceps femoris
  118. knee extension, hip flexion
    rectus femoris
  119. extends and stabilizes the knee
    vastus lateralis
  120. extends the leg
    vastus medialis
  121. extends knee joint
    vastus intermedius
  122. flexes the knee
    semitendinosus (medial), bicep femoris (lateral)
  123. parts of the fibula
    • proximal-head,neck
    • shaft
    • distal-lateral malleolus
  124. parts of the tibia
    • proximal-medial condyle, lateral condyle
    • shaft
    • distal- medial malleoulus
  125. bones of the foot
    calcaneus, talus, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  126. tarsals
    navicular, cuboid, cuneiforms (3)
  127. parts of the knee
    • anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament,
    • lateral collateral, medial meniscus, lateral meniscus
  128. what does the acl do?
    • attaches anterior to tibia and posterior to femur, prevents anterior movement of
    • tibia
  129. what does the pcl do?
    attaches posterior to tibia and anterior to femur, prevents tibia movement backwards
  130. shock absorber, reduce friction, disperse body weight, made of cartilage
    meniscus
  131. triad injury
    • tears the medial collateral ligament (mcl), anterior cruciate ligament (acl), medial
    • meniscus
  132. Dorsiflexion
    and inversion at the ankle (anterior)
    tibialis anterior
  133. extension of
    the lateral four toes, dorsiflexion of the foot (anterior)
    extensor digitorum longus
  134. extension of
    the great toe and dorsiflexion of the foot (anterior)
    extensor halluces longus
  135. Eversion
    and Plantarflexion of the foot (lateral)
    fibularis longus
  136. Plantarflexion
    the ankle (posterior)
    Gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus
  137. lateral rotation of the femur (posterior)
    popliteus
  138. invert and plantarflexes the foot (posterior)
    tibialis posterior
  139. flex the lateral four toes
    flexor digitorum longus
  140. flex the great toe
    flexor hulluces longus
  141. bones of the head
    frontal, parietal, occipital, nasal, sphenoid, temporal, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible
  142. sutures
    cornal, lambdoid, squamous, saggital
  143. landmarks on skull
    pterion, bregma, lambda
  144. what does the nose conchae do?
    filters, heat, and humidifies air
  145. parts of turbinates or nasal conchae
    superior, middle, inferior
  146. pulls
    eyebrows downward to produce wrinkles over the nose
    procerus
  147. open or close the nairs in the nose
    nasalis
  148. pulls cheeks toward teeth
    buccinator
  149. wrinkles forehead
    frontalis
  150. elevates upper lip
    lavator labii
  151. closes eyelids
    orbicularis occuli
  152. closes mouth, puckers lips
    orbicularis oris
  153. pouting
    mentalis
  154. depresses lower lip, frown
    depressor labii
  155. smiling!
    zygomaticus major and minor
  156. draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly, draws skin of neck when teeth are clenched
    platysma
  157. elevates the mandible, closing the mouth
    masseter
  158. elevates the mandible, closing the mouth, retracts the mandible
    temporalis
  159. turns head the opposite side
    sternocleidomastoid

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