cranial nerves

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cranial nerves
2014-06-26 10:05:12
license exam

license exam
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  1. anosmia
    • inability to detect smells
    • seen w frontal lobe defects
  2. anosognosia
    • lack of self awareness
    • person w disability unaware of disability
  3. CN II
    optic -- vision, no motor
  4. fancy words for nearsighted and farsighted
    • myopia - nearsighted, impaired far vision
    • presbyopia/hyperopia - farsighted, impaired near vision
  5. CN  III
    oculomotor -- visual tracking (up, down, in), pupillary reflexes / pupillary constriction, maintaining open eyelid
  6. anisocoria
    unequal sizes of pupils (possibly due to CN III defect)
  7. Horner's syndrome - describe
    • 1 sided ptosis, constricted pupil, anhydrosis
    • 2/2 problem w symp NS
  8. CN IV
    • trochlear
    • pulls adducted eye down -- it innervates only the superior oblique muscle (which also does IR and ER)
  9. strabismus / heterotropia
    eyes aren't aligned 2/2 lack of coordination between extraocular muscles
  10. esotropia
    • eye pulled inward, can't look laterally
    • 2/2 impairment of CN VI
  11. CN VI
    • abducens
    • abducts the eye
  12. CN V - roles
    • trigeminal
    • sensory: face and cornea
    • motor: temporal and masseter muscles (if impaired on one side, jaw will deviate to other side)
  13. CN VII
    does what
    condition if it's impaired
    • facial -- facial expression muscles - raise eyebrows, frown, show teeth, smile, close eyes tightly, puff out both cheeks
    • taste to ant 2/3 of tongue
    • Bell's palsy
  14. CN VIII
    • vestibulocochlear
    • hearing and balance
    • eye-head coordination (vestibulocular reflex VOR)
  15. Weber's test
    for what nerve
    • tuning fork on top middle of head, see if it sounds equally in both ears
    • CN VIII - vestibulocochlear
  16. Rinne's test
    for what nerve
    2 bad results
    • put tuning fork on mastoid, and when it's no longer heard move it to just outside the ear canal ¬†- should be heard thru air after it can't be heard thru bone
    • CN VIII vestibulocochlear
    • conductive loss: sound heard thru bone equal or longer than air
    • sensorineural loss: heard longer thru air, but timing thru air and bone are both greatly reduced
  17. CN IX
    • glossopharyngeal
    • sensory: tonsils, pharynx, middle of outside of ear, post 1/3 of tongue (taste), carotid bodies, carotid sinus (senses changes in pH and pressure)
    • motor:¬†stylopharyngeus muscle
    • secretion/drool from parotid gland

    contributes to phonation, swallowing, and gag reflex
  18. dysphonia
    • hoarseness denoting vocal cord paralysis
    • nasal quality denotes palatal weakness
    • 2/2 CN IX/X problems
  19. dysphagia
    • difficulty swallowing
    • often 2/2 CN IX/X impairments
  20. how to test palatal, pharynx control
    which CN?
    • CN IX and X, but I think more X
    • have pt say "ah" and look for whether palate elevates and if uvula stays midline
  21. how to test gag reflex
    which CN
    • lightly stim back of each side of throat
    • lesion of IX, maybe X
  22. CN XI
    • accessory
    • traps, SCM
  23. signs of impaired CN XI
    • inability to shrug ipsilat shoulder
    • shoulder droops
    • can't turn head to contralat side
  24. CN XII
    • hypoglossal
    • tongue movements