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  1. East African Gracial Forms?
    • Anamensis
    • Afrerensis
  2. South African gracial forms?
  3. East African robust forms
    • boisei
    • aethiopithecus
  4. South African robust forms
  5. What differentiates our hominem ancestors?
    • large brain size
    • dentition
    • tool making behaviour - standardized
    • also stand upright 
    • habitual Bipedal LOCOMOTION
  6. What is human bipedalism?
    The hallmark transition from hominiods to hominines
  7. Human Bipedalism
    • foward foramen magnum 
    • spine 
    • basin pelvis
    • long lower limbs
    • valgus position - valgus angle = hip to knee angulation. why chimps squat
    • foot changes - arches = shock absorbers, big toes are more aligned with our other toes
  8. Advantages of bipedalism
    • see farther
    • travel long distances
    • freed the hands
  9. Disadvantages of bipedalism
    • more visible to predators
    • expose underbelly
    • limits ability to change directions
    • reduces speed
    • lower backaches
    • leg and foot injury
  10. (Who were the earliest hominins?)
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • Chad 7-6 mya
    • skull 
    • unique features not seen on miocene apes
  11. (Who were the earliest hominins?)
    Ardepithecus, Aramis
    • Ethiopia 4.4 mya (reassigned to 5.8-5.2 mya)
    • Dentition reminiscent of chimps 
    • Hominin features
    • Forward foramen magnum
    • Bipedal?
  12. (Who were the earliest hominins?)
    Orrorin tugenesis
    • 6 mya
    • bipedal?
  13. Charecteristics of Australopothiecines (first definitive hominins)
    • Ape like from the waist up 
    • - longer arms relative to legs
    • - curved flexible fingers and toes (still tree climbing)
    • - foward thrust of the face (large flaring cheek bones - ape like)

    • Human like from the waist down 
    • - bipedal: S spine 
    • - foward foramen magnum 
    • -basin shaped pelvis
  14. What are the three Gracile Australopithecines species?
    • Anamensis 
    • Afarensis
    • Africanus
  15. What is the Cranial Anatomy of GA species?
    generally ape-like
  16. What is the Dentition of GA species?
    • human-like (thick enamel)
    • Arcade (ape-like)
  17. What is the Post Cranium of GA species?
    • ape-like waist up
    • human waist down 
    • australopithecine has pelvis similar to modern human
  18. What are the characteristics of the AUSTRALOPITHECUS ANAMENSIS?
    • East Africa (Kenya)
    • 4.2-3.9 mya
    • ape-like jaw and cranium
    • thick enamel on dentition 
    • bipedal
  19. Which species has strong facial prognathism(long snout) and relative large incisors and canines?
    A. afarensis
  20. Which species has:
    small incisors and canines;
    a rounded dental arcade;
    and a more globular cranium?
    A. Africanus
  21. What is the Cranial Anatomy of Robust Australopithecines?
    • Sagittal crest
    • broad vertical face
    • massive brow ridge
  22. What is the Diet and dentition of the Robust Australopithecines?
    • large palate and premolars
    • massive flat molars, with crowding front teeth
    • deep jaws
    • herbivore
  23. Which species has a large body size (34-49kg) and thick and robust bones?
    A. boisei
  24. Name the primitive traits of the A. Aethiopicus
    • cranial capacity is 410 cc
    • compund crest - connection of n crest to saggital crest
    • prognathic (long snout)
    • round dental arcade
  25. Name the hyper robust featurs of the A. Aethiopicus
    • broad face
    • massive projection of upper face
    • very large palate
    • large area back teeth
  26. Which species' dention consists of
    a massive palate and premolars and; 
    large flat premolars and molars?
    A. Boisei
  27. Which two species share a similar body size of 32-40kg?
    A. robustus and A. Africanus
Card Set
Intro to Anthopology Exam Review
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