MicroBio Exam 2

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surprise
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277664
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MicroBio Exam 2
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2014-06-30 14:03:32
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viruses bacteria
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viruses, bacteria
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  1. what are the general characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae?
    • 1.Facultative (aka optional) anaerobic, gram negative rods
    • 2. Motile by peritrichrous flagella
    • 3. Inhabit intestinal tracts of humans, poultry etc
    • 4. Pili (appendage used for conjugation & gliding motility)
  2. Gram Negative Rods: Enteric Bacteria

    What bacteria is the most common in human intestines?
    Escherichia coli
  3. Gram Negative Rods: Enteric Bacteria

    List characteristics of Escherichia coli
    • 1. GRAM NEGATIVE; RODS
    • 2. produces biocins & Vit K
    • 3. common in human intestines
    • 4. not usually pathogenic (except certain strains)
    • - Can cause:
    • a) UTIs
    • b) "traveler's diarrhea" from produced endotoxin
    • c) Strain 0157:H7, most famous! Causes severe bloody diarrhea, can be fatal, contracted from tainted meat
  4. Gram Negative Rods: Enteric Bacteria

    List characteristics of Salmonella
    • GRAM NEGATIVE; RODS
    • 1. common inhabitant of poultry & cattle intestines; pathogenic to humans
    • 2. can contaminate food, leads to enteritis if humans eat it.
    • 3. Salmonella typhi = typhoid fever
  5. Gram Negative Rods: Enteric Bacteria

    List characteristics of Shigella
    • GRAM NEGATIVE; RODS
    • 1. common inhabitant of poultry & cattle intestines; pathogenic to humans
    • 2. variety of stains, can cause:
    • bacillary dysentery, aka Shigellosis or sometimes "travelers diarrhea"
  6. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    A SOIL dwelling bacterium; many strains involved in nitrogen fixation
    Klebsiella

    this bacteria is Gram NEGATIVE; RODS

    also, k. pneumoniae causes pneumonia in humans
  7. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    Produces the Black Plague; carried by rats and ground squirrels; transmitted to humans by a rat flea bite
    Y. pesti

    Yersinia --- Gram NEG; RODS
  8. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    inhabits mucous membranes (attaches by pili adhesion and causes infection)

    mucous membranes like: URT, mouth, vagina, and intestines
    Haemophilus

    H. influenzae- common cause of ear infections & meningitis
  9. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    found in aquatic environments, esp stagnant water of a.c. systems
    Legionalla

    bacteria reside in a protozoa & can be found in water droplets which if inhaled = "Legionnaire's Disease"  a fatal respiratory infection
  10. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    -anerobic with prominent polar flagella
    -can use complex molecues eg fats & carbs as a nutritional source, therefore common cause of FOOD SPOILAGE (even refrigerated)
    -secretes enzyme that breaks down proteins
    -causes UTIs, burn/wound infection, & meninigitis
    • Pseudomonas
    • GRAM NEG; RODS

    -ability to digest complex substances allows them to survive even on soap
  11. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    cause of Whooping Cough (fits of violent coughing b/c of OVERPRODUCTION OF MUCOUS that results from the bacterial toxin (pertussin)
    • Bordetella
    • (B. pertussis)

    GRAM NEG; RODS

    -the pertussin (bacterial toxin) interfers with normal reg. of fluid production, thus causing OVERPRODUCTION OF MUCOUS
  12. Gram Negative Rods: NON-Enteric Bacteria

    Name this bacteria:
    anerobic capable of degrading complex organic substances for nutrition (>100 different organic molecules!)
    -common infection in CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    • Burkholderia
    • (B. cepacia)

    GRAM NEG; RODS
  13. Gram Negative Rods: Obligate Intracellular parasites (reproduce only within a mammalian cell)

    Name this Group:
    very pathogenic that MUST infect specific animals, usually transmitted by bites of insects and ticks
    Richettsia


    GRAM NEG; RODS
  14. Type of Richettsia that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?  (infects RBCs)
    • R. richettsii
    • GRAM NEG; RODS

    • since it infects RBCs, causes cells to lyse & capillary damage- appears as red spots on skin
    • carried by animal like deer; transmitted via tick bites
  15. Type of Richettsia that causes typhus? (carried by lice)
    • R. prowazeckii
    • GRAM NEG; RODS

    Transmitted/Carried by Lice
  16. Gram Negative Rods: Obligate Intracellular parasites (reproduce only within a mammalian cell)

    What type of bacteria is similar to Richettsia, but instead of infecting RBCs, this bacteria infects WBCs?
    • Ehrlichia
    • GRAM NEG; RODS

    causative bacteria= E. chaffeensis
  17. Gram Negative Curved Rods

    Name the bacteria:
    curved rods w. multiple flagella; found as cause of peptic ulcers & stomach cancer
    • Helicobacter
    • (H. pylori)

    can survive in acidic environment in the stomach (from HCL & other gastric juices) b/c it produces LRG quantities of enzyme urease (an ammonia like substance, aka a "strong base")
  18. Gram Negative Curved Rods

    Name the bacteria:
    found in contaminated water & nearby soil. can cause CHOLERA
    • Vibrio
    • (V. Cholerae is what causes cholera)
  19. Gram Negative Cocci

    Name the bacteria group:
    anerobic, DIPLOCOCCI that have pili, thus allows them to adhere to mucosal cells & cause infection
    • Neisseriae
    • GRAM NEG; Cocci
  20. Gram Negative Cocci

    Name this bacteria from Neisseriae group:
    cause of meningitis, infects respiratory system
    Dx from CSF sample
    N. meningitidiss

    disease is fatal if not dxed within 48 hours.  vaccine availabe, but many groups & strains exist.
  21. Gram Negative Cocci

    Name this bacteria from Neisseriae group:
    a STD, prominent pili that adheres to mucosal cells of genito/urinary systems
    N. gonnorahae

    many strains exist, infections occur thru human contact only.  Fatal if not txed, will spread systematically, can cause sterility.  no vaccine
  22. Gram Positive Rods

    Name this bacteria:
    -normally encapsulated, hard to kill
    -produces endospores that are extremely resistant to environmental factors
    -one type causes anthrax
    • Bacillus
    • GRAM POS; RODS

    B. anthracis- causes anthrax, commonly found in soil in barnyard areas
  23. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the genus of bacteria:
    -highly pathogenic, produces lethal exotoxins
    -obligate (by necessity) anaerobic organisms
    -produce endospores (that usually distend their cell)
    -mostly soil dwelling
    • Clostridium
    • GRAM POS; RODS
  24. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the species of Clostridium:
    -causes tetanus (secretes an exotoxin that interferes w. normal neural transmission & induces muscle spasms)
    -gain access via infected wound
    • C. tetani
    • GRAM POS; RODS

    can lead to death if diaphram muscles are affected (thus patient can no longer breathe)
  25. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the species of Clostridium:
    -causes severe & often incurable diarrhea
    -can effect elderly esp as a nosocomial (orginating in a hospital) infection.
    • C. difficile
    • GRAM POS; RODS
  26. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the species of Clostridium:
    -causes "gas gangrene"
    -open sores/wounds that are not washed are breeding grounds
    -secretes exotoxin that destroys muscle, tissues, & even RBCs.  Spreads rapidly
    -Tx is amputation & antibiotics, but often fatal
    • C. perfingens
    • GRAM POS; RODS

    a common battlefield infection
  27. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the species of Clostridium:
    -cause of botulism
    -food borne disease that results from contamination of processed foods with the spores of said bacteria
    • C. botulinium
    • GRAM POS; RODS

    • dented cans
    • botox
    • found in honey
  28. Gram Positive Rods

    Name the bacteria:
    -"club-shaped"
    -one species is cause of diphtheria
    • Corynebacterium
    • GRAM POS; RODS

    C. diphtheriae is cause of diphtheria (fatal, starts with severe throat infection), produces lethal toxin, vaccination available
  29. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the genus group:
    -spherical, arranged in CHAINS
    -largest group, greatest variety of infectious illnesses compared to any other group
    -produce extracellular substances contributing to pathogenicity
    -can destroy phagocytic cells & connective tissue
    • Streptococci
    • GRAM POS; COCCI
  30. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Streptococci:
    -cause scarlet fever, impetigo, pharyngitis, rheumatic fever, meningitis
    S. pyogenes
  31. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Streptococci:
    -cause of pneumonia
    S. pneumoniae
  32. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Streptococci:
    -cause of dental caries
    S. mutans
  33. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Streptococci:
    -cause of "flesh eating"
    S. fasciitis
  34. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Streptococci:
    -infection of heart valves, destruction of heart tissue
    S. endocarditis
  35. Due to large variety of Streptococci, a useful way to classify them, is by what method?
    the appearance when cultured on a blood agar plate
  36. What are the three categories streptococci could fall into (when cultured on blood agar plate)?
    • Alpha-haemolytic
    • Beta-haemolytic
    • Gamma-Haemolysis
  37. What color do Alpha-haemolytic bacteria produce on blood agar plate?
    converts hemoglobin from red to GREEN
  38. What color do Beta-haemolytic bacteria produce on blood agar plate?
    forms a CLEAR zone.  the bacteria produce a haemolysin that lyses RBCs, thus making a clear area
  39. What color do Gamma-haemolysis bacteria produce on blood agar plate?
    NO CHANGE; non-pathogenic
  40. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the genus of bacteria:
    -spherical, arranged in grapelike clusters
    -grow well under high osmotic pressure & low moisture (hence enjoying nasal secretions, skin)
    -certain strains cause condition called "scalded skin syndrome"
    -many strains have developed antibiotic resistance
    • Staphylococci
    • GRAM POS; COCCI

    some strains are designated "flesh eating" bacteria (meaning they secrete enzymes that break down connective tissue)
  41. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Staphylococci:
    -yellow pigmented colonies
    -grows well in high salt & can ferment sugar mannitol
    -produces toxin that invades & damages tissue (nosocomial issue, esp post-surgery)
    -the toxin can lead to "toxic shock syndrome"
    -freq. source of food poisoning b/c it can grow on complex substances, eg lipids
    • S. aureus
    • GRAM POS; COCCI

    TSS- potentially fatal, occurs when infected wounds (bed sores, or surgical dressings) are not frequently changed
  42. Gram Positive Cocci

    Name the species of Staphylococci:
    -able to grow at higher osmotic pressure
    -common found on skin
    • S. epidermidis
    • GRAM POS; COCCI
  43. Spirochetes
    [coiled morphology w. endofilaments for motility]

    Name the genus best know in the Spirochetes category:
    *hint* Syphilis
    • Treponema
    • T. palladium causes Syphilis
  44. Spirochetes
    [coiled morphology w. endofilaments for motility]

    Name the genus in Spirochetes that contains species causing Lymes Disease
    Borrelia

    coiled, Lymes contracted via tick bite, highest amt of cases are in late summer, early fall
  45. Cell Wall-less bacteria

    Name the bacteris:
    -the smallest
    -"fried egg appearance"
    -can produce filaments that resemble fungus
    Mycoplasma

    easily changes shape (aka pleomorphic) b/c no cell wall

    species- M. pneumoniae causes a pneumonia that is difficult to treat & may last a few weeks
  46. Name the group that has:

    -a fungus like appearance by microscopy
    -occasionally exhibits filamentous growth
    -DISTINCTIVE Cell walls that contain BOTH LPS & a waxy, water resistant substance (mycolic acid), it's essential in protection from environmental factors
    • Mycobacterium
    • similar to gram neg. in structure, yet has the waxy outter coating

    -cell wall enhances pathogenicity & makes it somewhat resistant to antibiotics
  47. Name the Mycobacterium that:
    -results in leprosy (secretes substance that breaks down cartilage, no known cure but drugs available to slow down progression)
    M. leprae

    *often will start in nose & ear cartilage
  48. Name the Mycobacterium that:
    -causes chronic & long-lasting respiratory infection. (TB)  used to be called consumption
    M. tuberculinium  (or according to book and everyone one else, M. tuberculosis)
  49. Environmental Bacteria:

    soil bacteria, grows near ROOTS, esp GRASSES
    has a role in nitrogen fixation
    Azospirillum
  50. Environmental Bacteria:

    soil bacteria, grows near roots of LEGUMES
    Rhizobium
  51. Environmental Bacteria:

    aquatic bacteria
    prominent extending structures called PROSTHECAE, used for getting nutrients
    Cell division by BUDDING (not binary fission, making it unusual)
    Caulobacter
  52. Environmental Bacteria:

    Gram neg rods, used in SEWAGE TREATMENT
    Zooglea
  53. What is a virus?
    Consist of nucleic acid (DNA= ds or ss; RNA) with a protein coat.  Must infect a living (host) cell in order to survive.  Can not replicate on its own.
  54. What is the coat of a virus called?  What is this coat consist of?
    • Capsid-- made of protein
    • Capsid is made of capsomeres
  55. What sometimes covers the capsid of a virus?  What sometimes covers this
    • Envelope 
    • Spikes
  56. Outside of the cell, viruses are called?
    Virions.  They are inactive until they can infect a host.
  57. What is "host range"?
    The spectrum of host cells a particular virus is able to infecto
  58. What are viruses that infect bacteria called?  Do they infect in a certain orientation?
    Bacteriophage, or phages.  Infect a certain way, tailn attaches to membrane, then nucleic acid injects into cytoplasm
  59. Two ways viruses replicate
    Lytic cycle (ends w. Lysis n death of host cell)

    Lysogrnic cycle (host cells remains alive)
  60. List 5 steps to replication  of T4 bacteriophage (an example of a lytic cycle)
    • 1. Attachment
    • 2. Penetration
    • 3. Biosynthesis
    • 4. Maturation
    • 5. Release (cell lyses)
  61. What are the steps to lysogeny pathway?
    • Once phage injects nucleic acid, two options can occur.  It may follow the lytic cycle OR
    • 1. Nucleic material fuses w. Bacteria's chromosome by recombination becoming a Prophage 
    • 2. Replication of this new Dna, aka the prophage, occurs.  The prophage remains latent
    • 3. SOME times a spontaneous event (eg certain chemicals or UV light) can lead to excision of phage DNA which then initiates a lytic cycle.
  62. What are three methods of culturing a virus?
    • 1. Fertilized chick embryos
    • 2. in vitro culture conditions - tissue culture
    •      Aka cell lines, continuous cell lines
    • 3. Animal models
  63. What are two ways that viruses infect eukaryotic cells?
    1. Endocytosis- virus engages host membrane which "involutes" & the virus is taken up into host's cytoplasm where Capsid dissipates and nucleic acid is released

    2.  Fusion- envelope of virus adheres to host me!branw and the envelope re!sins at the surface.
  64. Once virus enters eukaryotic cell, what three things occur?
    • 1. Viral nucleic acid is transcribed, new virus is synthesized n ruptures host as it releases, host dies
    • 2. As above, but new virus will LEAK from host, no host cell death
    • 3. Latent infection. Virus remains dormant until some event etriggers it to start full blown infection phase.
  65. What class of virus is the common cold?
    Adenoviridae
  66. what class of virus is an infection with pus filled lesions? eg smallpox, cowpox
    Poxviridae
  67. what class of virus is HHV-1, varicella, herpes simplex, zoster, chicken pox?
    Herpesviridae
  68. what class of virus is papillomas- warts, polyoma- tumors, association with cervical cancer?
    Papovaviridae
  69. what class of virus is liver disease?
    Hepadnaviridae
  70. what class of virus infects vertebraes? it is an RNA containing virus that converts RNA to DNA with reverse transcriptase enzyme following infection of host cell.  Eg HIV, AIDS
    Retroviridae
  71. what is the shape of a virus?
    Polyhedral
  72. do viruses have organelles?
    No
  73. what is uncoating of a virus?
    the separation of the viral nucleic acid from its protein coat once the virion is enclosed within within the vesicle.  (the capsid is digested)
  74. What is specialized transduction?
    • A possible outcome of lysogeny pathway.
    • It is when a prophage is excised from host, it can take with it a bit of adjacent DNA from host chromosome (instead of just the viral DNA becoming excised)

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