Biology Midterm Study

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Biology Midterm Study
2014-07-02 21:51:03
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  1. Be familiar with the hierarchical levels of life as discussed in class
    • Atom
    • Molecule
    • • Organelle
    • • Cell
    • • Tissue
    • • Organ
    • • Organ System
    • • Organism
    • • Population = grp of individuals of same species living in given area
    • • Community = all living organisms inhabiting a given area
    • • Ecosystem = community and chemical/physical environment
    • • Biosphere = all living organisms on earth (and environments)
  2. Be able to name (in order) all the levels of classification of living organisms
    • • Domain
    • • Kingdom
    • • Phylum
    • • Class
    • • Order
    • • Family
    • • Genus
    • • Species
  3. Know the three domains
    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
    • Eukarya
  4. Be able to list the four kingdoms of Eukarya
    • Kingdom Protista
    •  • Kingdom Fungi 
    • • Kingdom Plantae 
    • • Kingdom Animalia
  5. Understand binomial nomenclature
    • – Two-part name given to each species
    • • called scientific name
    • – By Carolus Linnaeus
    • – Name in Latin
    • • Will be italicized in print or underlined
    • – First name = Genus
    • – Second name = specific epithet (species)
  6. Be familiar with the scientific method
    • Observation 
    • Question 
    • Hypothesis 
    • Experiment 
    • Conclusion
  7. Know what controls and variables are
    • Variable • Part of the experiment that is changed/adjusted
    • Control • Part of experiment that remains constant/unchanged • The control is the standard of comparison – Used to verify results (and therefore is invaluable)
  8. Know the 6 elements basic to life
    • Carbon 
    • Nitrogen 
    • Hydrogen 
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphorus
    • oxygen
  9. Know what at atom is and be familiar with its structure
    smallest unit of an element that still retains properties of the element
  10. Understand the differences in electrons, neutrons, and protons
    • – Electron
    • • Negative charge
    • • Least massive

    • – Proton
    • • Positive charge
    • • ~ 2000x more massive than electron

    • – Neutron
    • • No charge
    • • ~2000x more massive than electron
  11. Be familiar with the Periodic Table such that you can tell the atomic number, atomic mass, # electron shells, # electrons in outer shell, or # of total electrons, protons or neutrons in a particular element
    • Atomic Number= # of protons
    • Atomic Mass- Atomic Number = Neutrons 
    • Rows= # of electrons 
    • Columns = # of electrons in outer shell
  12. Understand what covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds are – AND how they work
    Ionic bonding = one atom ‘gives up’ one or more electrons to another

    •  Covalent bonding = atoms ‘share’ one or more electrons with each other
    • – Two types of covalent bonds
    • 1. Nonpolar covalent bond
    • 2. Polar covalent bond

    Hydrogen Bonds- attractive intermolecular force between two partial charges of opposite polarity, weaker than ionic and convalent bonds 
  13. Understand the relationships between the terms polar, non-polar, hydrophilic & hydrophobic
  14. Be familiar with the pH scale- known what acids and bases are
    • pH scale ranges from 0-14
    • 0= most acidic (battery acid)
    • 7= neutral (pure water)
    • 14= most basic (lye)

    • acid= gives up H+ in solution 
    • base= take up H+ in solution
  15. Know the four classes of carbon-based biological molecules
    • carbohydrates 
    • lipids 
    • proteins 
    • nucleic acids
  16. Understand what monomers and polymers are
    Polymer = large molecule made of many similar or identical subunits (monomers)

    Monomer = small molecule combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a polymer
  17. Know what carbohydrates are and be familiar with simple and complex carbohydrates
    • Contain primarily C, O, H
    • • Ex. Breads and sugars

    • Examples of complex carbohydrates are starch
    • chitin, which forms the exoskeleton of arthropods
  18. Know what lipids are and be familiar with phospholipids
    • lipids= fats, oils, cholesterol
    • Function in the body as insulation, energy storage, outer lining of cells

    • phospholipids=  important type of lipid because they are the primary component of animal cell membranes
    • Dual nature
    • Polar head = hydrophilic (water-loving) –
    • Non-polar tails = hydrophobic (water-fearing)
  19. Understand what proteins and amino acids are
    • Amino acids are the monomers which make up proteins
    •  Proteins
    • **Only 20 different amino acids
    • – Different orders = different proteins
    • – Over 100,000 proteins identified
  20. Know what nucleic acids are and what they  make up
    Monomers of nucleic acids are called nucleotides
  21. Be able to name the 4 nitrogenous bases- by full name, not just letters
    • Adenine (A)
    • Cytosine (C)
    • Guanine (G)
    • Thymine (T)
  22. Understand the differences prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • prokaryotic
    • no nucleus 
    • no membrane bound organelles 
    • have capsule 

    • eukaryotic
    • nucleus 
    • organelles
    • cyotoskeleton
  23. Be familiar with the organelles discussed in lecture notes and the function of each
  24. Be able to follow the process of protein production in a cell
    • 1) Instructions from DNA are copied onto mRNA
    • 2) mRNA moves to ribosome
    • 3) Ribosome moves to endoplasmic reticulum and "reads" mRNA instructions 
    • 4) Amino acid chain growing from ribosome is dropped inside endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Chain folds into protein. 
    • 5) Protein moves to plasma membrane for export
  25. Know what cilia and flagella are and what they do
    • cilia- numerous hairlike extensions that move cell 
    • flagella- long, tail-like extension that propels cell
  26. Understand the differences in plant and animal cells
    • Plant cells don't have lysosomes 
    • Plant cells have cell wall, central vacuole, and plastids
  27. Be familiar with energy as we have defined it in class
    • the capacity to make things move or change condition 
    • types: solar, chemical, mechanical, electrical, nuclear
  28. Understand what happens to energy in building and breaking large molecules (take up or released) Understand how this relates to exergonic and endergonic reactions
    • exergonic reactions- products contain less E than reactants; breaking large complex molecules releases E
    • endergonic reactions- products contain more E than reactants; building large complex molecules requires E
  29. Be familiar with dehydration and hydrolysis reactions
    dehydration- endergonic reactions

    hydrolysis- exergonic reactions
  30. Be familiar with ATP and how its phosphate groups relate to energy condition
    • ATP= adenosine triphosphate
    • energy currency of the cell 
    • The 3 phosphate grps are negatively charged
    • – Require E to put next to each other
    • Outermost phosphate group ‘pops’ off
    • • **releases E
    • Becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
  31. Understand what enzymes are and how they work
    • Organic catalyst (usually protein) that speeds a chemical reaction in cells
    • Terms ending in ase are enzymes – Ex lactase
  32. Be familiar with the components of the plasma membrane and what each is responsible for
    • – Marks cell boundary
    • – Regulates passage of molecules into and out of the cell

    • Components
    • 1. Phospholipid bilayer-  Main component
    • 2. Cholesterol- Maintains optimal level of fluidity
    • 3. Protein- 
    •    1. Structural 
    •    2. Cell Recognition 
    •    3. Communication 
    •    4. Transport 
    • 4. Glycocalyx- ‘sugar coat’
  33. Be familiar with the three ways things can move into and out of a cell (Passive, active, bulk transport)
    • 1. Passive transport
    • • Substances move from higher to lower concentration
    • • No energy required
    • • Ex. diffusion and osmosis

    • 2. Active transport
    • • Substances moved from lower to higher concentration
    • • Requires energy
    • • Requires transport protein

    • 3. Bulk transport
    • • Movement of large substances
    • • Independent of concentration gradient
    • • Requires energy
  34. Understand what cellular respiration and photosynthesis are and know their word equations (what they take up, create and release)
    • process in which chemical bonds of energy rich molecules (ex. Glucose) are converted into energy usable for life processes
    • – *How we get energy from food

    *Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
  35. Know the four stages of cellular respiration and #ATP molecules produced in each  

    • 1. Glycolysis – In cytoplasm
    • 2. Preparatory reaction – In mitochondria
    • 3. Krebs cycle – In mitochondria
    • 4. Electron transport chain – In mitochondria
  36. Know total number (net) of ATP molecules obtained from breakdown of one glucose molecule
  37. Know where photosynthesis take place in the leaf
    Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = glucose + oxygen

    Mesophyll cells
  38. Understand the basic structure of DNA and how it replicates
  39. Know the difference in genome, chromosomes, and chromatids
  40. Be familiar with the structure of the chloroplast
  41. Be familiar with the stages of photosynthesis
    • 1. Light reactions
    • – In thylakoid membranes
    • - depends on sunlight 
    • -

    • 2. Calvin cycle
    • – In stroma
    • - G3P often becomes glucose
  42. Understand what homologous chromosomes are
    Homologous chromosomes are the same in size & function
  43. *Know how many chromosomes humans have in somatic cells. Know how many homologous pairs human have in somatic cells
    • 46 chromosomes 
    • 23 homologous chromosomes
  44. Be able to tell how many chromosomes humans have in gamete and how this relates to proper formation of a new organism
    • 23 chromosomes 
    • helps create diversity in sex cells
  45. Know phases of cell cycle
  46. *Understand the phases of Mitosis and Meiosis and their differences- be able to tell from drawings what phase a cell is in
  47. *Be able to compare/contrast Mitosis & Meiosis outcomes- parent/daughter types, chromosome #, etc
  48. Know the difference in haploid and diploid cells and types of each
    • Diploid to diploid (2n = 2n)
    • Occurs in somatic cells 

    • Diploid to haploid (2n = 1n)
    • Occurs in sex cells to produce gametes (sperm, egg)
  49. Understand how crossing-over and independent assortment cause genetic diversity
  50. Be familiar with the characteristics/causes of cancerous cells
    • Causes
    • – Environmental factors
    • • Chemicals, radiation
    • – Viruses
    • • Bring mutated genes into cells
    • – Random errors during DNA synthesis
  51. Know who is consider to the father of genetics and why
    Gregor Mendel
  52. Know what genes and alleles are and be able to identify examples (Ex. flower color = gene, purple = allele)
  53. Understand the differences in dominant and recessive alleles and how they are written
  54. Understand the differences in homozygous dominate, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous and how these relate to both phentype and genotype
  55. Know what monohybrid and dihybrid crosses are and their differences
  56. Know what the expected phenotypic ratio in the Fgeneration is from a monohybrid cross of a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent
  57. Know what the expected phentypic ratio in the F2 generation is from a dihybrid cross of a homozygous dominant parent (for both traits) and a hmozygous recessive parent (for both traits)
  58. **Know how to do punnett square crosses for both monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and how to tell the phenotypes of the offspring from their genotypes
  59. Understand what incomplete dominance, co-dominance, and polygenic inheritance are and be familiar with examples discussed in class- be able to do punnett squares to determine offspring condition for blood types
  60. Know what X-linked disorders, autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant disorders are - be familiar with examples given in class- be able to do punnet squares to determine offspring condition
  61. **Know what genes code for
  62. Know what transcription and translation are- how each works
  63. Know how RNA differs from DNA
  64. Know what mRNA and tRNA are and how they work in transcription and translation
  65. Know the difference in point and frame shift DNA mutations
  66. Understand germ-line and somatic mutations are
  67. Be familiar with the causes of DNA mutations
  68. Be able to follow a DNA sequence from DNA replication through transcription and translation