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Because I caused something to happen, I am morally responsible for it (whether good or bad)
morality is a set of externally imposed rules and duties (just taking orders)
rule following sense
because I make my moral decisions in a way that merits the trust of others, I am a morally responsible person (individual decision making)
decision making sense
Decision making sense must fulfill three criteria:
- rationality - consider all relevant factors
- emotions are not a reliable guide
- respect for others (Golden Rule)
Who believed that "Connectivity is the bridge over which learning and productivity increase"?
Martin Buber (thought we should see people as people and not objects)
-Going the first mile and fulfilling duty and obligation
- not requiring self-sacrifice
- requires one shares equally with others
Morality in the Marketplace
- going the extra mile (more than required)
- give up one's share for another
- giving and expecting nothing in return
Love in the Markerplace
What is the oldest form of ethics?
Religion-based ethics ( Early Greek philosophy, early babylonian & egyptian literature, old and new testaments
What are the two prevailing world-views?
- Judeo-Christian/Greco-Roman (unselfish)
- Kosmos (egocentrism)
to subdue the earth and exercise dominion over it; to work with nature for the common good
resources that you can marshal together; how wide your influence is
power in judeo-christian world-view
power is to dominate
power for creature comforts
power and wealth are the measure of success
happiness is achieved by acquiring possessions
to do good; that which is good
it seeks the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people or the least amount of happiness for the least amount of people.
What are the four categories of Utility?
- tangible desirables - homes, wealth, education
- intangible desirables - health, freedom, love
- tangible indesirables - pain, sickness, death
- intangible indesirables - loneliness, bitterness, rejection (disfunctions or emotional issues)
The Utilitarian Principle holds that an action is ethical if and only if the __________ by that act is greater than _________.
- the sum total of utilities produced
- the sum total of liabilities
utility is concerned with _____ well-being.
the end justifies the means; the results make the action ethical or moral; no one person's happiness is more important than antoher's
What are the shortcomings of utility?
- limited stakeholder error - limited to view of happiness
- single alternative error - other ethical standards are not considered
- short term error - consider only immediate consequences
- does not always hold the line of morality
flexible or spontaneous utility; which route will benefit the most or harm the least
Act Utilitarian (no set company rules bc each situation is unique)
Examples of Act Utilitarian in business:
- cut salary
- cut lunch hour
- attrition (a retiring employees duties are divided to existing employees)
occurs when leadership is mandated to follow established company policy benefitting the majority of all situations (company manual)
Traditional of Rule Utility
When applying utility, it is difficult to calculate _____________.
intangible (how do you measure the price of freedom; how to calculate animal rights)
let the buyer beware; nothing risk-free in American society
caveat emptor (taking perscription drugs in a way that was not advised; drinking liquid that warns you on the label is could be fatal)
utilitarian principle is a _____________ theory.
Utility has two purposes:
- instrumental - things that are good only bc they lead to "ultimate good" things (trip to dentist)
- intrinsic - things that are desired for themselves (long life, things you look forward to)
the ethical standard concerned with doing the right thing:
In Deontology, the emphasis is on doing what is required to continue doing the right thing no matter the __________________.
Who is the father of the Deontological movement?
Who said "Nothing is good in and of itself unless motivated by good will."
Immanuel Kant (Deontological approach)
emphasizes duties, motives, the dignity and worth of people, and a moral law that is unchanging and absolute.
Kant's moral theory