Phil Exam 2

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  1. Because I caused something to happen, I am morally responsible for it (whether good or bad)
    causal sense
  2. morality is a set of externally imposed rules and duties (just taking orders)
    rule following sense
  3. because I make my moral decisions in a way that merits the trust of others, I am a morally responsible person (individual decision making)
    decision making sense
  4. Decision making sense must fulfill three criteria:
    • rationality - consider all relevant factors
    • emotions are not a reliable guide
    • respect for others (Golden Rule)
  5. Who believed that "Connectivity is the bridge over which learning and productivity increase"?
    Martin Buber (thought we should see people as people and not objects)
  6. -Going the first mile and fulfilling duty and obligation
    - not requiring self-sacrifice
    - requires one shares equally with others
    Morality in the Marketplace
  7. - going the extra mile (more than required)
    - give up one's share for another
    - giving and expecting nothing in return
    Love in the Markerplace
  8. What is the oldest form of ethics?
    Religion-based ethics ( Early Greek philosophy, early babylonian & egyptian literature, old and new testaments
  9. What are the two prevailing world-views?
    • Judeo-Christian/Greco-Roman (unselfish)
    • Kosmos (egocentrism)
  10. to subdue the earth and exercise dominion over it; to work with nature for the common good
    Dominion theory
  11. resources that you can marshal together; how wide your influence is
    power in judeo-christian world-view
  12. power is to dominate
    power for creature comforts
    power and wealth are the measure of success
    happiness is achieved by acquiring possessions
    kosmos world-view
  13. to do good; that which is good
  14. it seeks the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people or the least amount of happiness for the least amount of people.
  15. What are the four categories of Utility?
    • tangible desirables - homes, wealth, education
    • intangible desirables - health, freedom, love
    • tangible indesirables - pain, sickness, death
    • intangible indesirables - loneliness, bitterness, rejection (disfunctions or emotional issues)
  16. The Utilitarian Principle holds that an action is ethical if and only if the __________ by that act is greater than _________.
    • the sum total of utilities produced
    • the sum total of liabilities
  17. utility is concerned with _____ well-being.
  18. the end justifies the means; the results make the action ethical or moral; no one person's happiness is more important than antoher's
    Consequentialist Theory
  19. What are the shortcomings of utility?
    • limited stakeholder error - limited to view of happiness
    • single alternative error - other ethical standards are not considered
    • short term error - consider only immediate consequences
    • does not always hold the line of morality
  20. flexible or spontaneous utility; which route will benefit the most or harm the least
    Act Utilitarian (no set company rules bc each situation is unique)
  21. Examples of Act Utilitarian in business:
    • cut salary
    • cut lunch hour
    • attrition (a retiring employees duties are divided to existing employees)
    • lay-off
  22. occurs when leadership is mandated to follow established company policy benefitting the majority of all situations (company manual)
    Traditional of Rule Utility
  23. When applying utility, it is difficult to calculate _____________.
    intangible (how do you measure the price of freedom; how to calculate animal rights)
  24. let the buyer beware; nothing risk-free in American society
    caveat emptor (taking perscription drugs in a way that was not advised; drinking liquid that warns you on the label is could be fatal)
  25. utilitarian principle is a _____________ theory.
  26. Utility has two purposes:
    • instrumental - things that are good only bc they lead to "ultimate good" things (trip to dentist)
    • intrinsic - things that are desired for themselves (long life, things you look forward to)
  27. the ethical standard concerned with doing the right thing:
    deontological approach
  28. In Deontology, the emphasis is on doing what is required to continue doing the right thing no matter the __________________.
  29. Who is the father of the Deontological movement?
    Immanuel Kant
  30. Who said "Nothing is good in and of itself unless motivated by good will."
    Immanuel Kant (Deontological approach)
  31. emphasizes duties, motives, the dignity and worth of people, and a moral law that is unchanging and absolute.
    Kant's moral theory
Card Set
Phil Exam 2
philosophy E2
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