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What is ERV, expiratory reserve volume
volume of gas that can be exhaled beyond a normal tidal exhalation
What is IRV, inspiratory reserve volume
volume of gas that can be inhaled beyond a normal tidal inhalation
What is RV, residual volume
volume of gas remaining in lungs after ERV has been exhaled
Define hyper/hypoxemia and what is normal range
- high or low oxygen level in blood
- WNL adults:80-100mm Hg
- WNL child: 75-80mm Hg
Define hyper/hypocapnemia and what is WNL
- high or low CO2 in blood
- WNL adult: 35-45mm HG
- WNL child: 34-54mm HG
With respiratory acidosis/alkalosis what is high or low in the blood? Whats normal PH level?
- acidosis=too much co2
- alkalosis= too much O2
- 7.3-7.45 normal PH level
what is tidal volume and what is normal for adults and children
- the amount of gas inhaled and exhaled during a normal breath
- WNL adults: 500ml
- WNL children: 20ml
What is functional residual capacity.
The amount of air that resides in lungs after a normal resting tidal exhalation
What is VC, vital capacity
amount of air that is under volitional control, measured as a FVC, forced vital capacity
What is FEV (forced expiratory volume)1? What is healthy?
Healthy is FEV 70% of total FVC (forced vital capacity) in one second.
With COPD which is increased? IRV (inspiratory reserve volume) or RV (reserve volume), why and what problem does this cause?
- This means after a normal exhale there is still a large volume of air in lungs. Air is "trapped". Does not leave much room for inhalation.
Asthma and CF results in hyperinflation or hypoinflation?
hyperinflation, air is trapped and FEV1 is decreased
What occurs with restrictive lung disease?
- Lungs have difficulty expanding
- IRV is increased (inspiratory reserve volume)
differences between COPD and restrictive lung disease?
restrictive has non-productive cough, expiratory flow rates are near WNL with restrictive, and decreased chest expansion with restrictive
What is clubbing and is it a sign of hypo or hyper oxia
- tips of fingers become bulbous and bluish
Norms for HR, BP, RR for adults
- HR: 60-100bpm
- BP: <120/80mm HG
- RR: 12-20 br/min
Norms for HR, BP, RR for infants
- HR: 120 bpm
- BP: 75/50mm HG
- RR: 40 br/min
what type of breath sound is vesicular?
- soft rustling sound heard throughout all of inspiration and beginning of expiration
what breath sound is bronchial
- more hollow, echoing sound
- normal, heard at right superior anterior thorax
what is crackles (rales or crepitations) and what is it associated with
- crackling sound usually with inspiration
- that indicated atelectasis, fibrosis, pulmonary edema
what is Atelectasis
part(s) of a lung collapse or fail to inflate normally
what is wheezes and what is it associated with?
- "musical" pitched sound normally heard with expiration caused by airway obstruction
- asthma, COPD, aspiration