Licensure, Heart Disease (O'Sullivan)

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  1. 3 stages of HTN, what are the ranges
    • stage 1 130-140/90-100
    • stage 2 140-160/100-110
    • stage 3 >160/>110
  2. What are the different layers of heart tissues and where are they
    • pericardium; fibrous surrounding heart
    • epicardium; inner layer or pericardium
    • myocardium; heart muscle, major portion of heart
    • endocardium; smooth lining of inner surface and cavities of heart.
  3. Which side and between what structure are the bicuspid between? Tricuspid?
    • Bicuspid is between R A-V chambers
    • Tricuspid (mitral) between L A-V chambers
  4. What are the types of semilunar valves
    • aorta
    • pulmonary
  5. What is the purpose of the SA node, sinoatrial
    • pacemaker of heart, initiates impulse
    • Has parasypm and sypm innervation which controls rate and strength of heart contraction
    • sends impulses into atrioventricular node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers
  6. What is SV, and WNL
    • stroke volume
    • amount of blood ejected with each heart contraction
    • ~70mL
  7. What is CO and WNL
    • cardiac output
    • amount of blood discharged from L or R ventricle per min
    • ~4-6L in adults
  8. This cranial nerve causes coronary artery vasoconstriction, slows rate and force of contraction, and decreases myocardial metabolism. (control's body recover from SNS)
    • CNX
    • Vagus
  9. This area of the brain stimulates the SNS for the heart, respiratory, and neuro systems.
    Medulla oblongata
  10. What drugs decrease SNS activity of the heart? Increase SNS?
    • Decrease= beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers)
    • Increase= beta-adrenergic agents
  11. What are barorceptors, what do they do
    • pressoreceptors
    • respond to changes in blood pressure
  12. What do chemoreceptors respond to?
    • changes in blood chemicals
    • ie. O2, CO2, lactic acid
  13. What is hyperkalemia and sns
    • increased potassium
    • tachycardia (which can lead to bradycardia)
    • potential cardiac arrest
  14. What is hypokalemia and sns
    • low potassium
    • hypotension
    • arrhytmias which may lead to ventricular fibrillation
  15. sns of hypercalcemia
    • htn
    • signs of heart block
    • cardiac arrest
  16. hypocalcemia sns
    • hypotension
    • arrhythmias
  17. what is hypernatremia and sns
    • increased sodium
    • htn
    • tachycardia
    • pitting edema
    • excessive weight gain
  18. what is hyponatremia and sns
    • hypotension
    • tachycardia
  19. what is WNL bpm for adults? infants?
    • adults: 60-80bpm
    • infants: 70-170bbpm
  20. What bpm is tachycardia? bradycardia?
    • tachy >100
    • bradycardia <60
  21. What is afterload and preload
    • afterload= load against which the LV during left ventricular ejection
    • preload= amount of blood in ventricle at end of diastole
  22. BP norms for infants? RR?
    • BP= 75/50
    • RR= 40breaths per min
  23. Where can cardiac pain refer to
    • shoulders
    • neck
    • arms
    • jaw
  24. What is Levine sign and whats it indicate
    • Pt clenches fist over sternum
    • indicates ischemia/angina pectoris
  25. Use/effects of Nitrates
    • (nitroglycerin)
    • decrease preload by peripheral vasodilation
    • reduces myocardial O2 demand
    • reduces chest discomfort (angina)
    • may also dilate coronary arteries
    • improve coronary blood flow
  26. use/effects beta adrenergic blocking agents
    • propranolol, inderal
    • reduce myocardial demand by reducing HR and contractility
    • control arrhbythmias
    • chest pain
    • reduce BP
  27. use/effects calcium channel blocking agents
    • diltiazem, cardizem, procardia
    • inhibit flow of calcium ions
    • decrease HR
    • decrease contractility
    • dilate coronary arteries
    • reduce BP
    • control arrhytmias
    • chest pain
  28. types of antiarrhymics
    • quinidine
    • procainamide
  29. types of anti-HTN
    • propranolo
    • reserpine
  30. use/effects of digitalis
    • cardiac glycosides, digoxin
    • increases contractility¬†
    • decreases HR
    • highly used in CHF
  31. types of diuretics
    • lasix
    • esidrix
  32. why can aspirin be important with MI
    it decreases platelet aggregation
  33. types of hypolipidemic agents (reduces serum lipids)
    • questran
    • colestid
    • zocor
    • mevacor
  34. pulmonary edema is a result of L or R CHF
    • Left
    • Left can't effectively pump to rest of body so blood pools in lungs
  35. What types of pain can intermittent claudication be described as
    • burning
    • searing
    • aching
    • tightness or cramping
  36. Whats the use of heparin
  37. How do you determine starting target heart rate?
  38. What MET range is desk work/light weight house work and what for jogging
    • deskwork/light weight house work= 1.5-2
    • jogging= 7-8
Card Set
Licensure, Heart Disease (O'Sullivan)
Licensure, Heart Disease (O'Sullivan)
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