American History I - Test #2

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American History I - Test #2
2014-07-01 01:24:17
American history civil war key terms

Key terms of American History from the U.S. Constitution to the Civil War
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  1. Thomas Jefferson
    3rd president of the United States. Ran against John Adams. Ran two consecutive terms in the white house.

    Jefferson’s election showed that Americans wanted a leader who believed that all men were equal.

    He guided the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France, and added 883,000 square miles to the United States.

    Jefferson sent three expeditions, one in which is Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the new wilderness west.
  2. Aaron Burr
    NY Candidate running against Jefferson under the Democratic Republican.

    Both Jefferson and Burr received and equal amount of votes which will initiate the 12th amendment to the constitution to have separate ballots for P and VP. 

    He became The vice president of Thomas Jefferson. after the federalist dominated house voted Jefferson for president.

    Aaron Burr is the one responsible for Alexander Hamilton's death.
  3. Marbury Vs. Madison
    Marbury v. Madison is arguably the most important case in Supreme Court history, was the first U.S. Supreme Court case to apply the principle of"judicial review" -- the power of federal courts to void acts of Congress in conflict with the Constitution.
  4. Louisiana Purchase
    • During Thomas
    • Jefferson’s presidency, U.S. purchased the Louisiana territory from France.
    • This purchase more than doubled the area of the United States. The purchase
    • also removed France from North America and secured access to New Orleans and
    • the trade along the Mississippi river.
  5. Osage Indians
    Native Americans the ruled the land between Missouri and Arkansas rivers. Known to be a fierce tribe. Thomas Jefferson adopted the Osage Indians as equal to Americans and as trade partners . Jefferson tried to protect them from other Indian refugees and by signing treaties for their land, but by 1808-1839 the Osage land shrank and by 1860 they will be expelled to Oklahoma.
  6. Impressments
    Forced military draft. During Jefferson's presidency England practice stealing U.S. sailors and draft them to their navy.
  7. Embargo Act of 1807
    • The Embargo Act of 1807 forbade the export of all goods from the United States, whether in
    • American or foreign ships and the importation of British goods to the states.

    The net result was deserted docks, rotting ships in the harbors, and empty soup kitchens, and Jefferson's embargo hurt the same New England merchants that it was trying to protect.

    The commerce of New England was harmed more that that of France and Britain.

    Farmers of the South and West were alarmed by the mounting piles of unexportable cotton, grain, and tobacco.

    Illegal trade mushroomed in 1808, where people resorted to smuggling again.
  8. Tippecanoe
    Battle between Native Americans and Americans that made a hero out of William Henry Harriso.

    • In 1811, Shawnee chief Tecumseh went to visit the Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek tribes, to enlist their support against American expansion.
    • Tecumseh left his brother, the Shawnee Prophet, in charge and told him not to attack nearby American forces.

    • The Shawnee Prophet ignored his brother's warnings and attacked the Americans anyway, near Tippecanoe Creek.
    • The American forces, under Indiana Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison, fought back. Ruining the Shawnees village.
  9. War Hawks
    Members of Congress from the South and West who desperately wanted war with Great Britain and with Native Americans, in order to protect the interests of America. The leader of the War Hawks was Henry Clay, who was Speaker of the House in the months leading up to the War of 1812. Another leading War Hawk was John C. Calhoun who sat in the foreign relations committee.
  10. Battle of New Orleans
    Most glorious victory the U.S. had experienced so far. This was the last battle of the War of 1812. The battle was led and won by Andrew Jackson whom opposed British forces that tried to capture New Orleans. The battle was a bit unnecessary since government official sign the Treaty of Ghent couple week before the battle.
  11. Hartford Convention
    • Federalist secret meeting in Connecticut to try to limit the South power. The federalists came with few proposals to the constitution and congress:
    • 1) abolish the Three-Fifths Compromise
    • 2) Require super majority in congress for actions like embargos, statehood and war declaration.
    • 3) Limit presidents serving term to one year.
    • 4) Limit consecutive president from same state (to break the Virginia dynasty)

    This convention was very unpopular move on the federalist behalf, which eventually led to the party's dissolution.
  12. James Monroe
    5th president of the U.S. Democratic-Republican. Monroe's crucial actions were to sign the Missouri Compromise and issue the Monroe Doctrine.

    Monroe Doctirne: 

    The Monroe Doctrine stated that the free American continents are not to be subject to future colonization by European powers.

    also, it revealed that any further efforts of countries from Europe to colonize land in North or South America would be regarded as acts of aggression and as such requires American intervention.
  13. Tallmadge Amendment
    Two amendments to the statehood bill made by James Tallmadge: 

    1)Slaves born in Missouri after statehood will be freed after the age of 25.

    2) No new slaves could be imported tot he state.

    House passed the legislation, but senate opposed to the amendments because it will the balance between free and slave states in the union.
  14. Missouri Compromise
    • an agreement
    • put forward by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave
    • state as long as Maine enters as a free state. The compromise drew an imaginary
    • line on 36’ 30 dividing Louisiana territory into 2 area. North of the line all
    • new states will be considered Free states, south of the line the states will be
    • slave states.
  15. Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson was the 7th President of the United States. Jackson's most prominent role in westward expansion was his continuing struggle to eject the Indians East of the Mississippi from their lands to free up land for American settlers.

    The Indian Removal Act of 1830 granted Jackson the funding and authority to accomplish this goal, which he pursued determinedly throughout his presidency.
  16. Panic of 1819
    Factors contributed to the Panic of 1819 including a downturn in exports and strong price competition from foreign goods. 

    The falling prices impaired agriculture and manufacturing, triggering widespread unemployment.

    Another major cause was the risky lending practiced by banks in the west. The Second Bank of the United States tightened their credit lending policies and eventually forced these “wildcat” frontier banks to foreclose mortgages on countless farms and similar high-risk debtors, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors.
  17. Henry Clay
    Henry Clay was a prominent Whig senator from Kentucky who ran unsuccessfully for President on three occasions. He was a supporter of internal improvements per his American System, and is well known as "the Great Compromiser" for his role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850.
  18. Spoils System
    • also called patronage system, practice in which the political party winning an election rewards its campaign workers by appointment to government posts and by other favours.
    • Practiced by Andrew Jackson
  19. Indian Removal Act
    Policy signed by Andrew Jackson to remove the five left Indian tribes to Oklahoma. The removal was supposed to be a voluntary act, but the U.S. Government put enormous pressure on the chiefs to sign the removal treaties. When some refused, the government used a legal force to remove them.
  20. Trail of Tears
    In 1838 the federal government obtained a forcible removal of all Cherokee tribes from Georgia to Oklahoma. A 1,000 miles march where cold, illness, starvation and exhaustion killed many of the Indian exiles.
  21. Nullifcation
    The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification.

    This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
  22. Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a period of religious revival in the United States. Characteristics of this period include widespread conversions, increased church activity, social activism, and the emergence of new Christian denominations.

    Also, social activism, especially in northern states, was an integral part of the Second Great Awakening. Advocates of the temperance movement criticized various effects of the role of alcohol in public life. Other activists began pushing for women’s rights, including the right to vote, during this period. Still others pushed for the reform of prisons. Finally, abolitionists gathered around the issue of slavery and called for its end in the United States.
  23. William Lloyd-Garrison
    William Lloyd Garrison was one of the most prominent Americanabolitionists, and was both admired and vilified for his unwavering opposition to slavery in America.As the publisher of The Liberator, a fiery anti-slavery newspaper, Garrison was at the forefront of the crusade against slavery from the 1830s until he felt the issue had been settled by the passage of the 13th Amendment.
  24. American System
    Idea that the federal government should take an active role in promoting and protecting the national economy. Three of the main ways of doing this at that time were promoting a vast network of internal transportation (roads, railroads, and canals), a large protective tariff (a tax on goods imported from other countries), and a central currency and economic strategy run by the Bank of the United States, a federal bank. Henry Clay was a champion of the American System.
  25. Manifest Destiny
    • Manifest Destiny was the idea that American and the American institutions are superior and hence Americans are morally obligated to spread their institutions westward and free the “less civilized” people from European
    • monarchies.
  26. Oregon Trail
    Major route that people took when migrating to the western part of the U.S. During 1841-1869 hundreds of thousands travelled westards of the trail, which began in Independence, Missouri and ended in Oregon City,Oregon. The trail length is about 2,000 miles and most people rode wagons to travel west.
  27. Mormons
    Mormons or Mormonism is a pseudo-Christian religion begun in 1830 by Joseph Smith in the New England area. The Mormon doctrine depicts an ancient Hebrew civilization in the heart of america, where a prophet would reestablish Jesus's undefiled kingdom on earth. The Mormons after year of prosecution in the East settled in the Great Salk Lake in Utah. The Mormon exodus to the West was led by Young Brigham to seek a religious refugee where the Mormons would find their religious freedom and communal security. Their take on polygamy caused an uncomfortable stir amongest non-Mormons which considered the act of polygamy to be an immoral and a threat to American law and institutions, and called for government action against Young's Mormon settlement which resulted in the "Mormon War"
  28. Young Brigham
    The Mormon Exodus leader. He oversaw the west trail and led 12,000 men to their final destination in The Great Salt Lake. The journey was split into two sections: Nauvoo to Omaha, Nebraska in 1846; and, Omaha to the Salt Lake Valley of Utah in 1847.
  29. Sam Houston
    First president of the Republic of Texas. He had gained fame as a soldier in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (during the War of 1812) where he was wounded. But definitely gained the favor of Andrew Jackson. He served the government in Indian affairs, studied law, and quickly rose to public office. Eventually, Houston was Attorney General, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and Governor of Tennessee.
  30. John Tyler
    • John Tyler was the tenth president. He was William Henry Harrison's vice-president and became president when Harrison died in office. Texas was annexed to the union while he was president.
    • Tyler was a strong proponent of states' rights. This meant that he thought state governments should have more power and the federal government less power. States should be able to set their own laws without the federal government interfering. His policies regarding states' rights caused a further riff and separation between the northern and southern states.
  31. Zachary Taylor
    12th president of the United States. He became president despite never having held a political office. He was a Mexican War hero, having won great victories at the Battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista. He ran for president on the Whig ticket and won mainly because he refused to comment on such troublesome issues of the day as slavery and popular sovereignty. Among the major things that occurred while he was in office was the debates over the Compromise of 1850. He was in office only a year before he died.
  32. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
    Peace treay the ended The Ameican Mexican War. The treaty released Mexican conquered territories and gave them to the U.S. Lending the Americans the control of southern lands expending from Louisiana all the way to California for $15M
  33. Transcendentalism
    Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that started in the 1830s with the belief that the most important reality is what is sensed or what is intuitive, rather than what is thought or practiced such as religous/scientific knowledge.
  34. The Oneida Community
    an Utopian community organized by Noyes in New York. They believed that private property is the root of greed and selfishness, therefore relinquished all members economical power to the community. And abolished martial property rights and replaced it with complex marriage which allowed open sexual intercourse between consenting adults.
  35. American Colonization Society
    • The ACS was a coalition made up mostly of evangelicals and Quakers who supported abolition and Chesapeake slaveholders who understood that slavery did not constitute the economic future of the nation.
    • They believed blacks would face better chances for full lives in Africa than in the United States. 

    • The society’s program focused:
    • 1) purchasing and freeing slaves.
    • 2) paying their passage to the west coast of Africa
    • 3)Assis them after their arrival there.

    In 1821, after a failed colonizing attempt the previous year, the society acquired the Cape Mesurado what is today Monrovia, Liberia. and they help settle over 10,000 free blacks in Africa.
  36. Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad. It got its name because its activities had to be carried out in secret, using darkness or disguise, and because railway terms were used by those involved with system to describe how it worked.

    Various routes were lines, stopping places were called stations, those who aided along the way were conductors and their charges were known as packages or freight.

    The network of routes extended through 14 Northern states and “the promised land” of Canada, beyond the reach of fugitive-slave hunters.

    Those who most actively assisted slaves to escape by way of the “railroad” were members of the free black community including former slaves like Harriet Tubman, Northern abolitionists, philanthropists and church leaders like Quaker Thomas Garrett.
  37. Miscegenation
    The term miscegenation has been used since the 19th century to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations and more generally to the process of racial admixture.
  38. Slave Codes
    The fear of rebellion that led each colony to pass a series of laws restricting slaves' behaviors. The laws were known as SLAVE CODES.Although each colony had differing ideas about the rights of slaves, there were some common threads in slave codes across areas where slavery was common. 

    • 1) Slaves are property, and are not allowed to own property.
    • 2) They were not allowed to assemble without the presence of a white person. 
    • 3)No testimony could be made by a slave against a white person
    • 4) Any white man is allowed to correct the behavior of a slave
    • 5) Slave marriage is not recognized by the state.
  39. Overseers
    People who watch over slaves to ensure they are working. OVERSEER was paid to get the most work out of the slaves, often resorted to whatever means was necessary.
  40. Wilmot Proviso
    • David Wilmot introduced a bill that will outlaw slavery in all territories
    • other than Texas ceded to the U.S by Mexico, Southern democrats responded violently
    • to any suggestion that slavery be reduced south of the line set by the Missouri
    • compromise, and threaten to secede the union.
  41. Popular Sovereignty
    Asserting the right of the people living in a newly organized territory to decide by vote of their territorial legislature whether or not slavery would be permitted in the state.
  42. Charles Sumner
    Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner was known for his deep commitment to the cause of civil rights and emerged as an antislavery leader in the late 1840s.

    In his Crime against Kansas speech he lambasted southern efforts to extend slavery into Kansas and attacked his colleague, Andrew P. Butler of South Carolina.

    Shortly after that speech, Butler’s cousin, Congressman Preston Brooks, assaulted Sumner on the Senate floor.
  43. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. a sensatiolist novel that help put a face on the institution of slavery and galvanized the North to take side in the slavery debate.
  44. Fugitive Slave Act
    • The Fugitive Slave Acts were a pair of federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway slaves within the territory of the United States.
    • The fiest enacted by Congress in 1793 and George Washington the first -  authorized local governments to seize and return escaped slaves to their owners and imposed penalties on anyone who aided in their flight.

    The Second Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 added further provisions regarding runaways and levied even harsher punishments for interfering in their capture.
  45. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • split the land that was once one into Kansas and Nebraska to allow Douglas' plan of a continental railroad that went through the north.
    • His provisions allowed popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery.

    This repealed the Missouri Compromise. which Later led to Bleeding Kansas.
  46. Gadsden Purchase
    • strip of land purchased by the United States from Mexico. possession of the Mesilla Valley near the Rio Grande (Arizona and New Mexico) was the most practicable route for a southern railroad to the Pacific.
    • James Gadsden negotiated the purchase, and the U.S. Senate ratified (1854) it by a narrow margin. The area of c.30,000 sqml purchased for $10 million.
  47. Know-Nothing Party
    • Aka the "American Party". 
    • It promised to purify American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment.
  48. Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas refers to the violence over whether the Kansas territory would be free or slave state. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 set the scene by allowing the territory of Kansas to decide for itself whether it would be free or slave -  popular sovereignty. With the passage of the act, thousands of pro- and anti-slavery supporters flooded the state.

    Violent clashes soon occurred, especially once Southerns from Missouri crossed over from the South to sway the vote to the pro-slavery side.

    One of the most publicized events that occurred in Bleeding Kansas was when on May 21, 1856 Border Ruffians ransacked Lawrence, Kansas which was known to be a staunch free-state area.
  49. John Brown
    John Brown was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. He tried to start a slave revolt by arming slaves with weapon, but his plan was not planned through. He was hanged for his deeds. He left a strong impact on the South, showing that the northern abolitionis will resort to violence for their cause.
  50. Dredd Scott
    slave who forever changed the definition of property. He went with his master to Illinois and Minnesota and claimed that this made him a free man.

    The Supreme Court ruled bu Chief Justice Roger Taney, in an 1857 plurality opinion,

    said that African-Americans could never become United States citizens and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. Of far more serious consequence, the Court also struck down the Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional, because it deprived property owners (slave owners) of the right to take their property anywhere in the United States, thus “depriving them of life, liberty and property under the 5th Amendment.”

    Further, the Court said, Congress could not constitutionally exclude slavery from the territories.
  51. Lincoln-Douglas Debate
    Series of seven debates between Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln and Democratic Sen. Stephen A. Douglas in Illinois senatorial campaign.

    They focused on slavery and its extension into the western territories.

    Lincoln criticized Douglas for his support of popular sovereignty and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, while Douglas accused Lincoln of advocating racial equality and disruption of the Union.

    Douglas won reelection, but Lincoln's antislavery position and oratorical brilliance made him a national figure in the young Republican Party.
  52. Harper's Ferry Raid
    • John Brown's failed attempt to break in to the State Arsenal and steal weapons to arm slaves in a revolt. 
    • Brown's raid, accompanied by 20 men in his party, was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee.
  53. Jefferson Davis
    Jefferson Davis was a two-term senator from Mississippi who resigned his seat in the face of the impending southern secession.

    In 1861, he was named President of the Confederate States of America, a position he held throughout the Civil War.

    Davis brought to the war table a long political carreer, fancy education and wartime experience, but proved to be less than he appeared.
  54. Anaconda Plan
    Playing offense in which is a pincer movement to constrain the South and keeo the cotton in the South. Divide the power of the states by attacking the South from around the Mississippi through the Gulf of Mexico and down the Mississippi River. Isolating Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas.
  55. Bull Run
    First major fight of the Civil War. the 2 armies clashed, the federalist lost the battle, their retreat turned into a panicky stampede which hurt civilians in the process. The Battle of Bull Run, or Manassas) confirmed the South ability to fight. The North drew the conclusion that victory will not be quick nor easy.
  56. Robert E. Lee
    • American soldier best known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865. 
    • master Strategist and war affairs master.
  57. Union Blockade
    • Blockade restricting the South from exports, depriving it from earning money to pay for the war, and stop the supply of food and other needed supplies from the army and citizens.
    • Part of the Anaconda Plan.
  58. Emancipation Proclamation
    Proclamation issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in those territories still in rebellion against the Union.
  59. "20 negro Law"
    One white man can send 20 black people to fight for him the war.
  60. Battle of Gettisburg
    Pennsylvania site of a tremendously important three-day battle. Lee had invaded the North in hopes of forcing attention from both Northern troops and European observers watching from afar.

    General George Gordon Meade caught up with Lee at the end of June, and July 1-3 the armies threw themselves at each other.

    The North held the high ground and made the advantage stick.

    Although Meade allowed Lee to escape back southward, he achieved his goal of weakening the Army of Northern Virginia so that it would never again have the strength to launch a major assault. The results led to the South surrender.
  61. William Tecumseh Sherman
    William Tecumseh Sherman commanded the Union armies of the West in the decisive drive from  Atlanta and the famous “march to the sea” across Georgia.

    In these campaigns and his later push northward from Savannah through the Carolinas, Sherman’s troops carried the war to the Southern home front and blazed a wide path of destruction that delivered the death blow to the Confederacy’s will and ability to fight.
  62. Total War
    Total war means the implication of all belligerents resources - human, economic, material, everything, with the purpose of gaining the war.