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first step in controlling bleeding. this pressure is applied over the site of the wound. Use a gloved hand or absorbent material, such as gauze
nosebleed; hemmorhage from the nose
decreased blood flow through an organ; if prolonged, can result in cellular dysfunction and death; also called shock
shock resulting from low blood volume caused by excessive bleeding, burns, metabolic disorders, or other causes of body fluid loss.
air filled plants that surround the legs and abdomen; when inflated, can be used to treat shock, immobilize fractures, and control bleeding.
Pneumatic antishock garment (PASG)
common pulse locatation where pressure can be applied to collapse an artery and thereby reduce or stop blood flow to a wound.
failure of the circulatory system to adepuately perfuse and oxygenate the vital organs of the body
constricting band applied over an extremity with enough pressure to completely stop blood flow beyond the site of application
what are the 3 major componets of the circulatory system
the amount of blood pumped with each beat
the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute
what is the formula to figure out cardiac output
stroke volume x number of beats per minute
size of the total space within the atreries, veins, and capillaries
the part of the blood pressure during ventricle contraction
the part of the blood pressure during ventricle relaxation
effects of epinephrine
- 1. cardiac output increases
- 2. blood flow to the brain increases
- 3. the pupils dialate
- 4. blood flow id redistributed
- 5. respiratory rate increases
what is the amount of blood loss that is considered serious in adults/children/infants
low supply of hemoglobin
when an atrery bleeds what is the flow, color, and location
pulsating or spurting, red, deeper vessels/exept joints
when a capillary bleeds what is the flow, color, and location?
continuous oozing, dark red, superficial
when a vein bleeds what is the flow, color, and location?
continuous, dark red or purple, superfical flow compared to ateries
to spots to apply pressure to control nose bleeds?
Kiesselbach area and vessels in upper lip
hidden blood loss from hemithorax: amount? % of total blood volume?
hidden blood loss from abdomen: amount? % of total blood volume?
hidden blood loss from femur: amount? % of total blood volume?
hidden blood loss from pelvis: amount? % of total blood volume?
.5L per fracture 10%per fracture
hidden blood loss from skull: amount? % of total blood volume?
not significant unless an infant
classification of shock
- problems with one of the following
- blood volume
- vascular system
what shock stems from heart failure or pump failure
what shock stems from a decrease in blood volume
what are some causes of hypovelimic shock
- low blood volume
- High enviromental temps
- prolonged exercise
- metabolic problems ex. diabetes
with <15% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
veins contrac none or transient
with 15%-30% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
epinephrine response, arteries constrict to maintain blood pressure, reducing flow to the skin, gut and muscles, and increase heart rate/ rapid tready pulse, cool pale clammy skin, thirst, weakness, faintness, anxiety, delayed capillary refill time, blood pressure may be normal,
with 30%-50% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
decompensation, cadiac output falls to half of normal/ hypotension, deteriorated mental status, combativeness, restlessness, rapid shallow respirations
shock that stems from failure of the vascular system
3 types of vasodilatory shock
- 1. anaphylaxis/spinal injury
- 2. psychogenic shock
- 3. septic shock
a vasofilatory shock that stems from an emotional responce
a vasodilatory shock that stems from a massive infection
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