EMT

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Author:
shebel
ID:
27781
Filename:
EMT
Updated:
2010-07-23 15:46:56
Tags:
chapter20
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Description:
Bleeding and Shock
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  1. first step in controlling bleeding. this pressure is applied over the site of the wound. Use a gloved hand or absorbent material, such as gauze
    direct pressure
  2. nosebleed; hemmorhage from the nose
    epistaxis
  3. profused bleeding
    hemorrhage
  4. decreased blood flow through an organ; if prolonged, can result in cellular dysfunction and death; also called shock
    hypoperfusion
  5. shock resulting from low blood volume caused by excessive bleeding, burns, metabolic disorders, or other causes of body fluid loss.
    hypovolemic shock
  6. air filled plants that surround the legs and abdomen; when inflated, can be used to treat shock, immobilize fractures, and control bleeding.
    Pneumatic antishock garment (PASG)
  7. common pulse locatation where pressure can be applied to collapse an artery and thereby reduce or stop blood flow to a wound.
    Pressure point
  8. failure of the circulatory system to adepuately perfuse and oxygenate the vital organs of the body
    shock
  9. constricting band applied over an extremity with enough pressure to completely stop blood flow beyond the site of application
    tourniquet
  10. what are the 3 major componets of the circulatory system
    • blood
    • heart
    • blood vessels
  11. the amount of blood pumped with each beat
    stroke volume
  12. the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute
    cardiac output
  13. what is the formula to figure out cardiac output
    stroke volume x number of beats per minute
  14. to flow through
    perfuse
  15. size of the total space within the atreries, veins, and capillaries
    vascular space
  16. the part of the blood pressure during ventricle contraction
    systole
  17. the part of the blood pressure during ventricle relaxation
    diastole
  18. effects of epinephrine
    • 1. cardiac output increases
    • 2. blood flow to the brain increases
    • 3. the pupils dialate
    • 4. blood flow id redistributed
    • 5. respiratory rate increases
  19. what is the amount of blood loss that is considered serious in adults/children/infants
    1L/.5L/100-200mL
  20. low supply of hemoglobin
    anemic
  21. when an atrery bleeds what is the flow, color, and location
    pulsating or spurting, red, deeper vessels/exept joints
  22. when a capillary bleeds what is the flow, color, and location?
    continuous oozing, dark red, superficial
  23. when a vein bleeds what is the flow, color, and location?
    continuous, dark red or purple, superfical flow compared to ateries
  24. to spots to apply pressure to control nose bleeds?
    Kiesselbach area and vessels in upper lip
  25. hidden blood loss from hemithorax: amount? % of total blood volume?
    2L 40%
  26. hidden blood loss from abdomen: amount? % of total blood volume?
    >3L >50%
  27. hidden blood loss from femur: amount? % of total blood volume?
    >1L 20%
  28. hidden blood loss from pelvis: amount? % of total blood volume?
    .5L per fracture 10%per fracture
  29. hidden blood loss from skull: amount? % of total blood volume?
    not significant unless an infant
  30. classification of shock
    • problems with one of the following
    • heart
    • blood volume
    • vascular system
  31. what shock stems from heart failure or pump failure
    cardiogenic shock
  32. what shock stems from a decrease in blood volume
    hypovolemic shock
  33. what are some causes of hypovelimic shock
    • low blood volume
    • GI
    • Fever
    • High enviromental temps
    • prolonged exercise
    • metabolic problems ex. diabetes
  34. with <15% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
    veins contrac none or transient
  35. with 15%-30% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
    epinephrine response, arteries constrict to maintain blood pressure, reducing flow to the skin, gut and muscles, and increase heart rate/ rapid tready pulse, cool pale clammy skin, thirst, weakness, faintness, anxiety, delayed capillary refill time, blood pressure may be normal,
  36. with 30%-50% of blood loss what is the bodis compensatory effect and signs and symtoms?
    decompensation, cadiac output falls to half of normal/ hypotension, deteriorated mental status, combativeness, restlessness, rapid shallow respirations
  37. shock that stems from failure of the vascular system
    vasodilatiory shock
  38. 3 types of vasodilatory shock
    • 1. anaphylaxis/spinal injury
    • 2. psychogenic shock
    • 3. septic shock
  39. a vasofilatory shock that stems from an emotional responce
    psychogenic shock
  40. a vasodilatory shock that stems from a massive infection
    septic shock

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