Pharmacology-Rad 102

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Pharmacology-Rad 102
2014-07-01 21:09:58

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  1. AC
    Before Meals
  2. bid
    twice a day
  3. c
  4. et
  5. g
  6. gtt
  7. h
  8. hs
    at bedtime
  9. hypo
  10. IM
  11. IV
  12. mg
  13. mL
  14. mm
  15. od
    in the right eye
  16. os
    in the left eye
  17. pc
    after meals
  18. PO
    by mouth
  19. prn
    as needed
  20. qh
    every hour
  21. q2h
    every 2 hours
  22. q3h
    every 3 hours
  23. qid
    four times a day
  24. s
  25. SC
  26. stat
  27. tid
    three time a day
  28. What is extravasation/infiltration?
    discharge or escape of fluid from a vessel into the surrounding tissue
  29. What is used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary edema to rid the fluid?
  30. Suppresses histamines from being released into the bloodstream, aids in treatment of an anaphylactic reaction or milder reactions like hives?
  31. Condeine, dextromethorphan, or guaifesesin is categorized with what drugs?
  32. Dilates air passage to aid in breathing?
  33. What treats heartburn and indigestion?
  34. What kind of drugs are kaolin and pectin?
  35. What reduces vomiting?
  36. What is used to reduce stomach secretions and spasms?
  37. What relieves constipation?
    cathartic or laxatives
  38. What category is nitroglycerin fall under?
  39. What category does captopril, or clonidine fall under?
  40. What category does mannitol or Lasix fall under?
  41. What are compounds in the body that separate into particles called ions?
  42. When doing              you must take allergic history b/c of the reactions range from mild to moderate to severe?
    iodinated contrast media
  43. What are the six rights?
    • right patient
    • right drug/medication
    • right amount or dose
    • right route
    • right time  
    • right documentation
  44. What is a glass or plastic container with a rubber stopper circled by a metal band?
  45. Heavy plastics or glass containers large volume?
  46. Made of entirely glass and is used for one dosage, line around neck snaps with pressure?
  47. What is considered to be the safest route but not considered the fastest?
    oral route
  48. Considered to be the one of the fastest routes but also can be one of the most hazardous routes?
    Intravenous administration
  49. Large amount is given over a short period of time?
  50. Small or large amount is allowed to drip into the venous system over a longer period of time?
    Drip Infusion
  51. Process of inserting a needle or catheter into a vein for injection or withdrawal of fluid?
  52. Where is the usual site for venipuncture for contrast injections?
    antecubital fossa/vein
  53. What are the supplies you need for venipuncture?
    tourniquet, syringe, butterfly needle, tape, gloves, alcohol wipe, and consent form signed.
  54. Which of the following needles has a bigger lumen, 19g. or 25g.?
  55. How many times should the label be read before an injection is given?
  56. What is the term used to describe an injection where an amount of a drug is given over a long period of time?
  57. What can be done to relieve puffiness at the injection site?
    warm compress
  58. What is the main reason that is given for warming the iodinated contrast media to body temperature?
    it reduces viscosity which makes it less painful during injection, reduces chance of reaction and injects easier.
  59. What are three categories of drug reactions?
    mild, moderate and severe
  60. Which category of drugs are used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure by removing fluid?
  61. What is the name given to a container of medication that is made entirely of glass and used for a single dose?
  62. What is term for a reaction to a procedure more so than a medication that manifests itself with pallor, cold sweats, syncope (fainting), but is not life threatening?  Tachycardia and hypotension may also be present?
    vasovagal reaction
  63. What type of needle is typically used for venipuncture during an IVP examination?
    butterfly needle
  64. What is considered to be the route that provides the quickest responses for a drug?
    intravenous or intraarterial
  65. What terms are used to describe the leakage of fluid into the surrounding tissues during venipuncture?
    extravasation of infiltration
  66. Which drug category would be utilized for patients with acute, severe pain?
  67. Which drug category may be utilized for patients with chronic, persistent pain?
  68. What is the name of the official register for a listing of drugs?
    United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
  69. What is the typical infusion rate for an adult's IV?
    15-20 drops per minute
  70. What term describes any means of bypassing the digestive tract to administer medications?
  71. What is the name of the large bottles of fluid that contain 50-1000mL?
  72. What does the term intrathecal mean?
    spinal canal
  73. What types of medications are used to treat skin conditions?
  74. What term describes when a drug is absorbed and taken through the bloodstream to its intended site?
  75. The process in which the body alters the chemical structure of a drug or substance?
    biotransformation or metabolism
  76. What types of drugs are used to treat infections?
    antimicrobial or anti-infective drugs
  77. What is the name that is assigned to a drug by a manufacturer that is copyrighted and uses Large cap letters at the beginning of its name?
    Trade Name
  78. Which route of drug administration is considered to be the safest and most desirable route but requires higher doses than I.V.?
  79. What is the name of the agent that is responsible for reducing a fever?
  80. What is the term that describes an injection where a large amount of drug is given over a short period of time?
    bolus injection
  81. What drug category is used to treat diseases such as herpes and aids related infections?
    antiviral drugs
  82. What is the term given to glass containers that contain rubber stoppers?
  83. What type of injection is made between the layers of the skin?
  84. What term describes an effect that is considered to be harmful?
    adverse reaction
  85. How high above the level of the vein should I.V.'s be placed?
    18-24 inches
  86. What is the name of a drug that is in lower case lettering and is always the same?
    generic name
  87. What is the term used to describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs?
  88. What is the name of the study of drug interactions with living organisms?
  89. What is the study of drugs actions and interactions with living tissue upon the body?
  90. Also called the "proprietary name" name given to a drug by a specific manufacturer (capital letter is used) copyrighted like "Tylenol"?
    Trade name
  91. What is it called if it is the exact chemical formulation?
    Chemical name
  92. Name used by all (smaller case letter is used) acetaminophen is "Tylenol"?
    generic name
  93. What is it called how the body works on the drug?
  94. What is the study of the change in normal physiological function of the body due to a drug?
  95. When an unintended effect is expected to occur and is not harmful?
    side effect
  96. An effect that is harmful?
    adverse reactions
  97. Drugs that induce cancer?
  98. Route that uses the digestive tract (oral, rectal, and sublingual)?
  99. What administration of drugs is used when patients cannot tolerate oral techniques, are vomiting, or are too young to swallow meds?
  100. Not through digestive tract such as injection or inhalation?
  101. What is it called when its skin testing?
  102. Introduce meds below the dermal layer?
  103. What is used for large amounts?
  104. What is used for arterial blood stream?
  105. What is it called when it is put into veins-I.V.'s?
  106. What is drugs when it is inhalants?
    respiratory tract
  107. What is the fastest way to introduce drugs through the blood stream?
    intra-arterial or intravenous
  108. What is reasons for parental administration?
    • -emergency situation
    • -inability to tolerate oral routes of meds
    • -need to localize anesthesia or focus on precise area of body
    • -situations in which digestion could counter the effects of meds.
  109. What is anti-infectious?
    germ fighting
  110. What is used to prevent infections from bacteria, fungus, protozoa, viruses and parasites?
    antimicrobial drugs
  111. What is also called anti-infective, drugs, antibiotics or antibacterial?
    antimicrobial drugs
  112. What is used to treat major fungal infections and can be administered systemically or topically?
    antifungal agents
  113. What is used to prevent or treat viral infections, some infections treated are herpes and aids, hepatitis?
    Antiviral Drugs
  114. What drugs affect central nervous system?
    stimulants, depressants, agonists, antagonist, sedatives, narcotics, antianxiety, antidepressants, and antipsychotics
  115. What is used to promote sleep, subdue agitation, convulsions etc...
  116. What is used for acute, severe pain, and for chronic pain when other measures have not been successful?
  117. What is used for pain control?
    opioid analgesics/ agonists
  118. What is reverse agonist affects?
  119. Drugs used to treat anxiety, psychotic disorders?
  120. What treats clinical depressive disorders?
  121. What drugs are used for the treatment of seizure disorders?
  122. What drugs are in mainly gas form for inhalation in surgical procedures, common local anesthetics, muscle relaxants or full anesthetics for surgery?
  123. What increases motor activity, euphoria-ex. all amphetamines, Ritalin, cocaine or coffee?
  124. What alter mind patterns-most are illegal?
  125. What is used to relieve pain?
  126. What reduces fever?
  127. What is used for myalgia, neuralgia, and cephalalgia?
    NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics)
  128. What drugs are used to prevent the blood from clotting?
  129. What corrects heart beat abnormalities?
  130. What is also called antidrenergic and antihypertensive?
    alpha and beta blockers
  131. What drugs are used for treatment of hypertension which is high blood pressure?
    • Alpha and beta blockers
    • aka- antiadrenergic or antihypertensive
  132. What is used for treatment of severe hypertension?
  133. What drugs dilates blood vessels to reduce blood pressure forces with in them?
  134. What drugs are similar to vasodilators-relax smooth muscles and increase blood flow?
    organic nitrates
  135. What is the expected knowledge a radiographer must know to administer drugs?
    • -safe dosage
    • -safe route
    • -limitations of drug
    • -side effects
    • -potential adverse
    • -toxic reactions
    • -indications
    • -contraindications
  136. How long is a company allowed to produce a drug without any other company producing it?
    17 years
  137. Maybe used for small injections use between 18 and 22 gauges needle depending on the viscosity of the material being injected?
    hypodermic needle
  138. The ______ the gauge, the smaller the diameter of the needle and opening?
  139. What are BUN-normal?
    8-25 mg/100 mL
  140. What is creatinine normal?
    .6 to 1.5 mg/dl
  141. A medication given for Type II diabetes?
    • glucophage
    • (aka metformin hydrochloride)
  142. stat
  143. Units that medication is measured in?
    metric system
  144. a plastic sheath placed over a beveled core, core removed, sheath is left in the vein for I.V.?
  145. Trade name is Intropin what is the generic name?
  146. Trade name is Adrenalin chloride what is the generic name?
  147. Trade name is Levophed what is the generic name?
  148. Trade name is Isuprel what is the generic name?
  149. What constricts blood vessels and stimulate the heart?
    adrenergic drugs
  150. What causes increased peripheal circulation and decreased blood pressure?
    adrenergic blocking agents
  151. Trade name is Atropine what is the generic name?
    atropine sulfate
  152. Trade name is Scopolamine hydrobromide what is the generic name?
    hyoscine butylbromide
  153. What increase cardiac output, constrict blood vessels, decrease saliva and bronchial secretions?
    antimuscarinic drugs
  154. What reduce calcium flow to heart and thereby relax smooth muscle tone and reduce muscle spasm?
    calcium channel blockers
  155. Trade name is Cardizem what is the generic name?
  156. Trade name is Calan what is the generic name?
    verapamil hydrochloride
  157. What drugs can you find on an emergency drug cart?
    Intropin(dopamine); Adrenalin chloride(epinephrine); Isuprel(isproterenol); Inderal(propranolol); Atropine(atropine sulfate); Cardizem(diltiazem); Calan(verapamil hydrochloride); Quinaglute(quinidine); Xylocaine(lidocaine hydrochloride); Cordarone(amiodarone hydrochloride); Lasix(furosemide); Valium(diazepam); Adrenalin(epinephrine); Benadryl(diphenhydramine); Sodium bicarbonate(aluminum hydroxide); Cortef(hydrocortisone)
  158. Trade name is Lanoxin what is the generic name?
  159. Trade name is Dobutrex what is the generic name?
  160. Trade name is Hyperstat IV what is the generic name?
  161. Trade name is Apresoline what is the generic name?
  162. Trade name is Quinaglute what is the generic name?
  163. Trade name is Xylocaine what is the generic name?
    lidocaine hydrochloride
  164. Trade name is Cordarone what is the generic name?
    amiodarone hydrochloride
  165. What increase force of contractions of the heart to reverse cardiac symptoms?
  166. What is used for severe hypertension by directly affecting arteriolar smooth muscle?
    direct-acting vasodilators
  167. What used to correct arrhythmias of the heart due to electrical abnormalities in formation or conduction that may be life-threatening?
  168. Trade name is Nitrostat what is the generic name?
  169. Trade name is Transderm-nitro what is the generic name?
  170. Trade name is Lasix what is the generic name?
  171. Trade name Hydrazide what is the generic name?
  172. Trade name is Motrin, Advil, etc... what is the generic name?
    ibuprofen analgesic drugs (NSAID)
  173. Trade name is Tylenol what is the generic name?
  174. Trade name is Morphine what is the generic name?
    morphine sulfate
  175. Trade name is Demerol what is the generic name?
    meperidine hydrochloride
  176. Trade name is Duragesic what is the generic name?
    fentanyl citrate
  177. Trade name is Codeine what is the generic name?
    codeine sulfate
  178. Trade name is Percocet what is the generic name?
    oxycodone hydrochloride
  179. Trade name is Darcvon what is the generic name?
    propoxyphene napsylate
  180. Trade name is Xanax what is the generic name?
  181. Trade name is Ativan what is the generic name?
  182. Trade name is Valium what is the generic name?
  183. Trade name is Heparin what is the generic name?
    heparin sodium
  184. Trade name is Coumadin what is the generic name?
    warfarin sodium
  185. Trade is Lipitor what is the generic name?
  186. Trade name is Mevacor what is the generic name?
  187. Trade name is Zocor what is the generic name?
  188. Trade name is Adrenalin what is the generic name?
  189. Trade name is Proventil what is the generic name?
    albuterol sulfate
  190. Trade name is Aminophylline what is the generic name?
  191. Trade name is Benadryl what is the generic name?
  192. Trade name is Chlor-trimeton what is the generic name?
  193. Trade name is Phenergan what is the generic name?
  194. Trade name is Compazine what is the generic name?
  195. Trade name is Transderm-Scop what is the generic name?
  196. Trade name is Dramamine what is the generic name?
  197. Trade name is Vistaril what is the generic name?
  198. Trade name is Tagament what is the generic name?
  199. Trade name is Zantac what is the generic name?
  200. Trade name is Pepcid what is the generic name?
  201. Trade name is Prilosec what is the generic name?
  202. Trade name is Protonix what is the generic name?
  203. Trade name is Amphogel what is the generic name?
    aluminum hydroxide
  204. Trade name is Maalox what is the generic name?
    magnesium hydroxide
  205. Trade name is Sodium bicarbonate what is the generic name?
    aluminum hydroxide
  206. Trade name is Milk of Magnesia what is the generic name?
    magnesium hydroxide
  207. Trade name is Colace what is the generic name?
    docusate sodium
  208. Trade name is Metamucil what is the generic name?
  209. Trade name is Pepto-Bismol what is generic name?
    bismuth subsalicylate
  210. Trade name is Imodium what is the generic name?
  211. Trade name is Lomotil what is the generic name?
    diphenoxylate hydrochloride
  212. Trade name is Levoxyl what is the generic name?
    levothyroxine sodium
  213. Trade name is Cytemol what is the generic name?
    liothyronine sodium
  214. Trade name is Cortef what is the generic name?
  215. Trade name is Cortone what is the generic name?
  216. What is meant by the term "parental" administration of drugs?
    any route that bypasses the digestive tract
  217. What is the difference between a "class" or "schedule" II, drug a class/schedule V?
    • II-control substance-highly addictive
    • V-low level of dependence
  218. What is the name given to the decreased penetration effect found in the construction of the brain to protect it against chemical that might damage it?
    blood brain barrier
  219. What organ is responsible for/the center of most drug metabolism?
  220. What is the term given to the time it takes for a 50% decrease in a drug's presence in the body?
    half life
  221. What is the difference between antibiotic drugs, and anti-viral drugs?
    • antibiotic-kills or inhibits micro organisms
    • anti-viral-destroys or supresses the growth of viruses
  222. Morphine, Fentanyl, Meperidine hydrochloride(Demerol), Oxycodone(Percocet), are all examples of what kind of drug?
    opiod analgesics(narcotics)
  223. What group of drugs do you give to REVERSE the effect of opiod analgesics?
    Antagonist as well as the counteragent is an antagonist
  224. What do electrolytes seperate into when dissolved in a solvent(water), and what can they do?
    ions, positive and negative-aid in the flow of fluid through cell membranes to keep a balance inside and outside cell wall (homeostasis)
  225. When injecting iodinated contrast material intravscular, what 2 things affect/prompt the sudden shift in body fluid from the interstitial spaces and cells into the systematic circulation?
    Osmolality, ionic/nonionic
  226. What does "homeostasis" mean?
    the tendency of an organism to maintain an internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological processes
  227. What does extraversion mean?
    leakage through or outside of a duct or vessel
  228. Explain the difference between, intradermal subcutaneous (subq), and intramuscular injections?
    • Subq- under skin
    • Intramuscular- deeper into muscle-large amounts
  229. What must you take from a patient before injection or administration of any contrast agent and why?
    history and vitals. to have a baseline vital signs and prevent possible reactions because of patient history
  230. What are common parenteral anticoagulants?
    heparin and enoxaparin(Lovenox)
  231. What is an oral anticoagulant?