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melody without harmony or counterpoint
modern: any 4 notes of scale or tone row
derives from Greek music theory meaning literally "4 strings"
- 3 types: diatonic (steps), chromatic (contains a m3) and
- enharmonic (contains M3)
earliest musical notation
- Ancient Greece- 6th Century BC- could show pitch and note
- duration. Symbols above text syllabols.
- used in "Musica Disciplina" of Aurelian of Reome- 9thC- used in
- plainchant- showed contour and shape but not exact notes and rhytms to
- be sung.Four lines, not 5- square notes.
Franconian- only divisions of 3
Ars nova- divisions of 2 or 3
- composer/performer of Occitan Lyric Poetry
- southern France, later spread to North (trouveres) and rest of Europe
- (minnesinger in Germany)
- songs about chivalry and courtly love, could be humorous or vulgar as wellgenres:
- canso, serventes and tensosEx: Bernhart
de Vintedorn (" can vei la lauzeta mover"- a canzo) and Beatritz de Dia
- ("a chantar"). Both are monophonicsongs in duple or triple, rythmic and having to do with dance
- language= provencial French
- or upper middle classFavord
- Forms: Ballade, Roundeau, VirelaiEx: Je du
- Robins et de Marion (Rondeau) one voice 2 instruments
type of service of the Roman Catholic Church
Also called "Canonical Hours"
celebrated every day at stated times in a regular order
music for this is collected in "Antiphonale" or "Antiphoner" and included, psalms, hymns and canticles, chanting of lessons.
vespers is most important one musically- only one that admitted polyphonic singing in early times.
- principal service of the Roman Catholic Church
- word came from the closing phrse "Ite missa es"
- Ordinary: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei
- Proper (not done every day, but on special feasts or festivals- not as important musicallly)
- see development of mass
- The oldest manuscripts of Gregorian chants were written using a graphic
- notation which uses a repertoire of specific signs called neumes; each
- neume designates a basic musical gesture (see musical notation). As books, made of vellum
- (preparated sheepskins), were very expensive, the text was abbreviated
- wherever possible, with the neumes written over the text. This was a
- notation without lines and no exact melodic contour could be deciphered
- from it, which implies that the repertoir was learnt by rote. In later
- stadia, the neumes are written onto staves of one or more lines; by the
- 11th century this had evolved into square notation, from which
- eventually the modern five-line staff developed in the 16th century.
singing of asingle syllable of text while moving between several different notes
earliest written appearance in 9thC in Gregorian chantused often in the Gradual or Alleluia of the Mass
6 note segments of a scale or tone row.
a mnemonic device first described by Guido of Arezzo,
- It was the most basic pedagogical tool for learning new music in the
- European Middle Ages.
all adjacent pitches are a whole tone apart, except for the middle two, which are separated by a semitone.
six pitches are named ut, re, mi, fa, sol, and la, with the semitone between mi and fa.
- adapted in the twentieth-century in Milton Babbitt's
- serial theory.
- s a system of attributing a distinct syllable to each note in a
- solfege- do re mi fa sol la ti do. di, ri, fi, si, li and descending
- te, le, se, me, ra
- classification system of musical tonalities.
- Church modes:
- dorian (D)
- phrygian (E)
- lydian (F)
- aeolian (A)
- locrian (B)
- ionian (C)
- also can
- apply to rhythmic modes in middle ages
- term used in European music theory from the late 12th century to about 1600 to
- describe any pitches, whether notated or to be added by performers in
- accordance with their training, that lie outside the system of musica
- recta or musica vera ('correct' or 'true' music) as defined
- by the hexachord system of Guido of Arezzo.
- In modern
- usage, the term is often loosely applied to all unnotated inflections
chant where words are added syllabically
- 3 ways to trope a hymn:
- add music and words to existing chant
- add melisma to existing music
- add words to existing chant ("prosula")
orginates from the mass and is theatrical
evolved out of liturgy in in 15thC as mystery plays
Church music handbook of the Medieval period
contained parallel and oblique organum
- first notated polyphonic music
- plainchant melody with at least one added voice
- 3 types:
- Parallel Organum (earliest)- 900,
- Free Organum (most used-1000), and
- Melismatic Organum (florid or aquitanian- 1100)
Notre Dame School
Leonin and Perotin
descant clausula, organum, development of motet and conductus
mr- medieval notation of patterns of long/short note durations (6 patterns) used in ars antiqua and developed by Notre Dame School-1175-12225- first indication of specific note durations in written music since ancient Greece.
used in: Notre Dame organum (most famously, the organum triplum and organum quadruplum of Pérotin), conductus, and discant clausulae
Magnus liber organi
latin for "Great Book of Organum"
compilation of organum written in 1100's and 1200's attributed to Leonin and Perotin
musical notation system which was used in European music from the later part of the 13th century until about 1600.
diamond- rather than oval-shaped and stems perched directly on top
- Before1450's- all notes solid, filled-in form (Black Notation), after that the larger
- note values were written hollow, like today (White Notation).