Management information systems test 2

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Management information systems test 2
2014-06-30 21:21:27
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  1. information technology (IT) infrastructure
    • the
    • shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s
    • specific information system applications
    • IT infrastructure consists of a set of physical devices and software applications
    • that are required to operate the entire enterprise.
  3. “service platform"
    • perspective makes it easier to understand the
    • business value provided by infrastructure investments. fast computer and internet for high earners to make them more productive.
  4. There have been five stages
    • general-purpose
    • mainframe and minicomputer computing, personal computers, client/server
    • networks, enterprise computing, and cloud and mobile computing.
  5. mainframe
    • support
    • thousands of online remote terminals connected to the centralized mainframe
    • using proprietary communication protocols and proprietary data lines.
  6. minicomputers
    • powerful machines at far
    • lower prices than IBM mainframes, making possible decentralized computing,
    • customized to the specific needs of individual departments or business units
    • rather than time sharing on a single huge mainframe.
  7. Wintel PC
    • Windows operating system software on a computer with an Intel
    • microprocessor
  8. client/server computing
    • desktop or laptop computers called clients are
    • networked to powerful server computers that provide the client computers
    • with a variety of services and capabilities.
  9. multitiered
    • (often called N-tier) client/server architectures
    • in which the work of the entire network is balanced over several
    • different levels of servers, depending on the kind of service being requested
  10. Web server
    • will serve a Web page to a client
    • in response to a request for service. Web server software is responsible for
    • locating and managing stored Web pages
  11. application server.
    • Application server software handles all
    • application operations between a user and an organization’s back-end business
    • systems. The application server may reside on the same computer as the Web
    • server or on its own dedicated computer
  12. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    • networking
    • standard to tie their disparate networks together
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  13. Cloud computing
    • a model of computing that provides access to a
    • shared pool of computing resources (computers, storage, applications, and
    • services), over a network, often the Internet
  14. Moore’s Law.
    • manufacturing costs per component (generally transistors) had doubled each
    • year. Moore later
    • reduced the rate of growth to a doubling every two years
    • 18 months, memory doubles, price is in half, power doubles
  15. Nanotechnology
    • uses individual
    • atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are
    • thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit
  16. increasing returns to scale
    • network members receive as more and more
    • people join the network. As the number of members in a network grows
    • linearly, the value of the entire system grows exponentially and continues to
    • grow forever as members increase.
  17. declining
    cost of communication
    • both over the Internet and over telephone networks
    • (which increasingly are based on the Internet). As communication costs fall
    • toward a very small number and approach 0, utilization of communication and
    • computing facilities explodes.
  18. technology standards
    • Technology
    • standards are specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the
    • ability to communicate in a network
  19. Blade servers
    • ultrathin computers consisting of a circuit board
    • with processors, memory, and network connections that are stored in racks
  20. Storage area networks (SANs)
    • connect multiple storage
    • devices on a separate high-speed network dedicated to storage. The SAN
    • creates a large central pool of storage that can be rapidly accessed and shared
    • by multiple servers.
  21. Legacy systems
    • older transaction processing systems created for mainframe computers
    • that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning
    • them
  22. Grid computing
    • involves connecting geographically remote computers into a
    • single network to create a virtual supercomputer by combining the computational
    • power of all computers on the grid
  23. Virtualization
    • is the process of presenting a set of computing resources
    • (such as computing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in
    • ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location
  24. On-demand self-service
    • Individuals can obtain computing capabilities
    • such as server time or network storage on their own.
  25. Ubiquitous network access:
    • Individuals can use standard network and
    • Internet devices, including mobile platforms, to access cloud resources
  26. Location independent resource pooling:
    • Computing resources are pooled
    • to serve multiple users, with different virtual resources dynamically assigned
    • according to user demand. The user generally does not know where the computing
    • resources are located.
  27. Rapid elasticity:
    • Computing resources can be rapidly provisioned,
    • increased, or decreased to meet changing user demand.
  28. Measured service
    • Charges for cloud resources are based on amount of
    • resources actually used.
  29. utility computing
    billed on a monthly or annual subscription basis
  30. on-demand computing
    billed on a monthly or annual subscription basis
  31. Green computing or green IT
    • practices and technologies
    • for designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers,
    • servers, and associated devices such as monitors, printers, storage devices, energy consumption
  32. Autonomic computing
    • industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure themselves,
    • optimize and tune themselves, heal themselves when broken, and protect
    • themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction
  33. Open source software
    • software produced by a community of several
    • hundred thousand programmers around the world
  34. XML
    • foundation technology for Web services
    • Extensible Markup Language
  35. Hypertext Markup Language
    • is a page description language for specifying how text, graphics, video,
    • and sound are placed on a Web page document
  36. service oriented
    architecture (SOA)
    • self-contained services that
    • communicate with each other to create a working software application
  37. software package
    • is a prewritten commercially available set of
    • software programs that eliminates the need for a firm to write its own
    • software programs for certain functions, such as payroll processing or order
    • handling
  38. software as a service (SaaS).
    • users paying
    • either on a subscription or per-transaction basis. Services for delivering and
    • providing access to software remotely as a Web-based service
  39. service level agreement
    • SLA is a formal contract between customers and their service
    • providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the
    • level of service expected by the customer
  40. mashups
    • Individual
    • users and entire companies mix and match these software components to
    • create their own customized applications and to share information with others
  41. Scalability
    • ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to
    • serve a large number of users without breaking down
  42. total cost of ownership (TCO)
    • analyze
    • these direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific
    • technology implementations
  43. Market demand for your firm’s services
    • Make an inventory of the services
    • you currently provide to customers, suppliers, and employees. Survey each
    • group, or hold focus groups to find out if the services you currently offer are
    • meeting the needs of each group
  44. Your firm’s business strategy.
    • Analyze your firm’s five-year business strategy
    • and try to assess what new services and capabilities will be required to achieve
    • strategic goals.
  45. Your firm’s IT strategy, infrastructure, and cost
    • Examine your firm’s information
    • technology plans for the next five years and assess its alignment with
    • the firm’s business plans. Determine the total IT infrastructure costs
  46. Information technology assessment
    • Is your firm behind the technology
    • curve or at the bleeding edge of information technology?
  47. Competitor firm services
    • Try to assess what technology services competitors
    • offer to customers, suppliers, and employees
  48. Competitor firm IT infrastructure investments
    • Benchmark your expenditures
    • for IT infrastructure against your competitors
  49. field
    • A grouping of characters into a word, a group of
    • words, or a complete number (such as a person’s name or age)
  50. record
    • A group of related fields, such as the student’s name, the course taken,
    • the date, and the grade, comprises
  51. file
    • a group of records of the same
    • type is called
  52. database.
    A group of related files makes up
  53. entity
    • person, place, thing, or event on
    • which we store and maintain information
  54. attribute
    • Each characteristic or quality
    • describing a particular entity
  55. data inconsistency
    where the same attribute may have different values.
  56. Program-data dependence
    • coupling of data stored in files and the
    • specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes
    • in programs require changes to the data
  57. database
    • collection of data
    • organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and
    • controlling redundant data
  58. database management system (DBMS)
    • is software that permits an
    • organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently, and provide access
    • to the stored data by application programs
    • find gross pay, it finds it
  59. relational DBMS
    • Relational databases represent data as two-dimensional tables (called
    • relations). Tables may be referred to as files. Each table contains data on an
    • entity and its attributes
  60. tuples
    Rows are commonly referred to as records, or in very technical terms tuples
  61. key field
    • uniquely identifies
    • each record so that the record can be retrieved, updated,
  62. primary key
    • This key field is the unique identifier for all the
    • information in any row of the table and this primary key cannot be duplicated
  63. object-oriented DBMS
    • stores the data and procedures that act on those
    • data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared
  64. data definition
    • capability to specify the structure of the content
    • of the database. It would be used to create database tables and to define the
    • characteristics of the fields in each table.
  65. data dictionary
    • automated or
    • manual file that stores definitions of data elements and their characteristics
  66. data manipulation language
    that is used to add, change, delete, and retrieve the data in the database
  67. The most prominent data manipulation language today
    Structured Query Language, or SQL
  68. normalization
    • The process of creating small, stable, yet flexible and
    • adaptive data structures from complex groups of data
  69. referential integrity
    • rules to
    • ensure that relationships between coupled tables remain consistent
  70. entity-relationship
    • This diagram illustrates the relationship
    • between the entities SUPPLIER, PART, LINE_ITEM, and ORDER
  71. data warehouse
    • is a database that stores current and historical data of
    • potential interest to decision makers throughout the company
  72. data mart
    • subset of a data warehouse
    • in which a summarized or highly focused portion of the organization’s
    • data is placed in a separate database for a specific population of users
  73. online analytical processing
    • OLAP supports multidimensional data analysis, enabling users to
    • view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions
  74. Predictive analytics
    • use data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions
    • about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the probability
    • a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product
  75. Text mining
    • able to extract key elements from large unstructured data sets, discover
    • patterns and relationships, and summarize the information
  76. Web mining
    • understand customer behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of a particular
    • Web site, or quantify the success of a marketing campaign
  77. database server
    • In a client/server environment, the DBMS resides on a
    • dedicated computer called a database server
  78. information policy
    • specifies the organization’s rules for sharing,
    • disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information
  79. Data administration
    • is responsible for the specific
    • policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational
    • resource
  80. data governance
    • deals with the policies and
    • processes for managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the
    • data employed in an enterprise, with special emphasis on promoting privacy,
    • security, data quality, and compliance with government regulations.
    • A large organization will also have a database design and management
  81. data
    quality audit
    • which is a structured survey of the accuracy and level of
    • completeness of the data in an information system
  82. Data cleansing
    • also known as data scrubbing, consists of activities for
    • detecting and correcting data in a database that are incorrect, incomplete,
    • improperly formatted, or redundant
  83. network interface card (NIC).
    • Most personal computers today have this card
    • built into the motherboard. The connection medium for linking network
    • components can be a telephone wire, coaxial cable, or radio signal
  84. network operating system (NOS)
    • routes and manages communications
    • on the network and coordinates network resources
  85. Hubs
    • are very simple devices that connect network
    • components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices
  86. switch
    • has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified
    • destination on the network
  87. router
    • communications processor
    • used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that the data
    • sent gets to the correct address
  88. Packet switching
    • method of slicing digital messages into parcels called
    • packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they
    • become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their
    • destinations
  89. protocol
    • set of rules and procedures
    • governing transmission of information between two points in a
    • network
  90. ransmission Control Protocol/
    Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    • support U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
    • (DARPA) efforts to help scientists transmit data among different types of
    • computers over long distances.
  91. local area network
    • is designed to connect personal computers and other digital devices
    • within a half-mile or 500-meter radius
  92. peer-to-peer
    • processors equally and is used primarily in small networks
    • with 10 or fewer users. The various computers on the network can exchange
    • data by direct access and can share peripheral devices without going through a
    • separate server
  93. topology
    • There are three major LAN topologies:
    • star, bus, and ring, how they are connected together.
  94. star topology
    all devices on the network connect to a single hub
  95. bus topology
    • one station transmits signals, which travel in both
    • directions along a single transmission segment
  96. ring topology
    • connects network components in a closed loop. Messages
    • pass from computer to computer in only one direction around the loop,
  97. Wide area networks (WANs)
    • span broad geographical distances—entire
    • regions, states, continents, or the entire globe
  98. metropolitan area network (MAN)
    • is a network that spans a
    • metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs
  99. Twisted wire
    • consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs and is an older
    • type of transmission medium
  100. Microwave
    • transmit highfrequency
    • radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for
    • high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication
  101. Internet Protocol (IP) address
    • which currently is a 32-bit number represented
    • by four strings of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by periods
  102. Domain Name System (DNS)
    • converts domain names to IP
    • addresses
  103. domain name
    • English-like name that corresponds to the
    • unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet
  104. Internet2
    • are consortia representing
    • 200 universities, private businesses, and government agencies in the United
    • States that are working on a new, robust, high-bandwidth version of the
    • Internet
  105. Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    • services include e-mail, electronic discussion groups, chatting and
    • instant messaging,
  106. Unified communications
    • integrates disparate channels for voice communications,
    • data communications, instant messaging, e-mail, and electronic conferencing
    • into a single experience where users can seamlessly switch back and
    • forth between different communication modes
  107. virtual private network (VPN)
    • is a secure, encrypted, private network
    • that has been configured within a public network to take advantage of the
    • economies of scale and management facilities of large networks, such as the
    • Internet (see Figure 7-12).