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What are ethics?
- -ethics were born of necessity to aid in setting acceptable behaviors in order to live in harmony
- -rules of conduct
- -a philosophical and systematic study of morals
- -primarily concerned with the good of an individual or group
Where do ethics come from?
personal, professional, cultural values and morals.
What is it that ethics provide for us?
rules, regulations, and guidelines
May be defined as a purposeful, self regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference?
What does it take to be a critical thinker?
- -able to cut through pretenses and fads
- -confident and energetic
- -flexible yet systematic
- -intellectually curious and skeptical
- -open to new ideas and respectful of other's views
- -willing to take risks and consider novel ideas
What is the decision making process?
- -properly interpret and apply ethical theories and models
- -plan a course of action
- -be able to change that course of action if necessary based on flow of exam being performed
What are morals?
an individuals interpretation of what is right and wrong
What determines a person's morals?
- person's value
How do ethics and morals differ from the law?
- laws are man-made rules
- society is governed by these rules
- rules are formal and legally binding
- they are designed for the good of the society
What is nonmaleficence?
- "do not harm" - principle
- avoidance of evil
- passive omission
- do nothing that could harm the patient
What is beneficence?
- "Do not harm" principle
- performance of good acts
- requires action to either prevent harm or do good
What are principles of biomedical ethics?
What involves rights or claims that must be balanced or weighed against each other, moral rightness, doing the "right" or "fair" thing for the patient?
"Principle of Respect", respect for patient as a person, allows a person to choose a course of action on the basis of a plan they have chosen for themselves?
Being truthful-to patients, employers, colleagues, obligation to tell the truth and not to lie, sometimes our duty to our employer and following a code of ethics is in conflict?
Respecting a patient's privacy, duty to protect the privacy of the patient, not unnecessarily discussing a patient's personal medical information, confidentiality is related to the patient's right to privacy?
Faithfulness to the patient's reasonable expectations, loyalty, professionalism (respect patient's rights, competence)?
Performance of good acts?
avoidance of evil?
obligation to tell the truth and not to lie?
respect for the patient as a person?
duty to protect the privacy of the patient?
faithfulness and loyalty?
What are the 3 basic groups of values?
- personal values
- cultural values
- professional values
beliefs held by a person that guides their behavior?
specific values that have been formed due to cultural influence?
general attributes that a given profession should include in its actions and conduct?
bases decision on outcome of act?
bases decision on individual motives and morals instead of outcome?
bases decision on common sense, moral character, for emotional and intellectual problem solving?
health care provider is considered a scientist, concerned with facts, patient condition, or type of procedure performed (not a actual human being)?
health care provider assumes a fatherly role (makes decision for patient)?
paternal model (priestly)
a cooperative model that includes patient in the decision making process?
business relationship between provider and patient?
recognizes that health care procedure is not "etched in stone", a patient/provider agreement based on traditional values and goals?
What was developed to aid in ethical problem solving?
dowd problem solving model
What are the steps to dowd problem solving model?
- 1. assessment of problem
- 2. isolation of issue
- 3. analysis of data
- 4. development of plan
- 5. implement of plan
- 6. analysis outcome
What are the four ethical problems?
- ethical distress
- ethical dilemmas
- dilemma of justice
- locus of authority problems
when we know the right course of action, but there is barrier?
What is this an example of the newly admitted patient has told you that they have just had a chest x-ray at his physician's office, but it is hospital policy that all newly admitted patients must have a chest x-ray?
When acting on one moral conviction, you break another moral conviction, not knowing quite what to do in a given situation?
When resources are allocated to some individuals or groups but not to all?
dilemma of justice
Roles and policies often make it unclear who is in charge?
locus of authority problems
gathering information, awareness of all sides and angles of problem?
assessment of the problem
medical facts, personal data, relevant values, principles, ethical dilemmas that are involved?
isolate the issues
eliminate alternatives that violate or conflict with values, review alternatives and project long-range consequences for each, isolate the most acceptable alternatives, and establish and evaluate alternatives?
analyze the data
with appropriate ethical concepts implemented?
develop a plan
did the plan work, could things have gone more smoothly, what could have made this process better?
analyze the plan
What outlines the moral dimensions of the profession and is adopted by the ASRT and ARRT?
code of ethics for rad techs
Is a system that identifies, analyzes, and evaluates risks, helps maintain high quality patient care, safety, and evaluate risks?
What are concerned with assessing and improving patient care?
What are important tasks that ensures quality?
- gaining informed consent
- respecting patient confidentiality
- radiation protection
- awareness of safety issues
- report hazardous conditions
active process of allowing no harm to come to the patient?
passive process of allowing no harm to come to the patient?
What does diversity include?
- health status
- sexual orientation
- racial identity
- mental abilities
- social status
- economic position
What are the patient's rights?
- right to high quality hospital care
- right to a clean and safe environment
- right to be involved in your care
- right to privacy
- facility should prepare you and your family for when you leave the hospital
- help with your bill and filling of insurance
What are ways people are alike with universal values?
- religious values
- relationships with other people
- nature of humankind
appropriate behaviors and attitudes that provide effective interaction in a cross cultural environment?
providing readily available culturally appropriate oral and written language services?
what provides respectful service without discrimination?