Tuberculosis-Radiology 152

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Tuberculosis-Radiology 152
2014-07-01 13:15:39

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  1. What is tuberculosis disease caused by?
    mycobacterium tuberculosis, tubercle bacillus or acid-fast bacillus
  2. What percent of americans may have TB infection and may not know it?
  3. T or F:  T.B. can be inactive but can become active at any time?
  4. What can the infection be treated with and how long?
    isoniazid and 6-12 months
  5. If taking the medicine the risk of it becoming active reduces by ____%?
  6. How much percent will active TB will die from the disease?
  7. What can TB affect in the body?
    lungs, larynx, spine and kidneys
  8. What destroys tissue, replacing it with fibrous connective tissue?
  9. What does symptoms include for TB?
    fatigue, weight loss, fever, chills and night sweats
  10. What are the symptoms of TB of the lungs?
    persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood (hemoptysis)
  11. How is TB infection diagnosed?
    Mantoux skin test (PPD)
  12. How is mantoux skin test injected?
    is injected into the layers of the skin termed an "intradermal" injection
  13. What is PPD?
    purified protein derived tubercle bacilli
  14. How long after the shot can the test site be examined for a positive examination?
    48-72 hours
  15. What is present if there is evidence of infection?
    5mm hardened area
  16. Who can have false negatives due to their compromised immune systems?
  17. What is the most common screening method for TB?
    mantoux tuberculin skin test
  18. What other test can be done instead of mantoux tb skin test?
    • chest x-rays
    • sputum smears
    • sputum cultures
  19. TB is spread by __________?
    airborne transmission
  20. What travels by minute droplets (droplet nuclei transmission)?
    tubercle bacilli
  21. What is transmitted by inhalation of contaminated air?
    droplet nuclei
  22. What actions can spread TB?
    sneezing, coughing, singing, talking, shouting, or breathing
  23. What collects around the TB bacilli?
    inflammatory cells
  24. inflammatory cells collect around a clump of TB bacilli to form a small mass called a ______?
  25. These scars are most often found in the ________?
    apex of the lungs (top)
  26. What does often contain which is deposited as healing occurs?
  27. What does necrotic mean?
    dead essentially
  28. If resistance is poor or the infection dose large, the bacilli kill the inflammatory cells, and the center of the mass becomes?
  29. What is hemoptysis?
    coughing up blood
  30. Reactivation of TB from dormant tubercles is termed?
    secondary TB
  31. What are high risk groups?
    the homeless, elderly, prison inmates, alcoholics, IV drug users, persons with HIV infections/AIDS, children living with these people
  32. What are high risk groups?
    African Americans, Asians, American Indians, Hispanics, Foreign born: asia, Africa, Caribbean, latin america
  33. Non whites have __X higher rate of TB incidence?
  34. Who are at the lowest risk of TB?
    5-14 year old children
  35. Who is at high risk due to their immature immune systems?
  36. How many new cases per year are there of TB?
    approximately 30,000
  37. What percent of people with inactive disease will become active and become infectious?
  38. How many people in the U.S. have an inactive TB infection?
    10-15 million
  39. What is it called when recent strains of TB have become resistant to the drugs which are treat the disease?
    multi-drug resistant TB
  40. What type of TB is very difficult to treat because it doesn't respond to the drugs typically used to treat the disease?
    multi-drug resistant TB
  41. What are the causes  of multi-drug resistant TB?
    • medication is not taken as directed
    • medication must be taken 6-9 months to 2 years
    • patients feel better and stop taking meds
    • medications cause unpleasant side effects such as nausea
    • high risk patients may not be able to afford medication
    • high risk patients are often transient
    • medications are sometimes prescribed incorrectly
  42. What are adverse reactions with rifabuten?
    arthralgia, arthritis, uveitis, and gastrointestinal
  43. What are adverse reactions with ethambutol?
    neuropathy, causes defect in red-green vision
  44. What can be done to stop the increase in multi-drug resistant TB?
    • patient education
    • directly observed therapy
  45. What are methods of prevention?
    the patient should cover his/her mouth with tissues when coughing, isolation of patient, proper ventilation of facility, UV light fixtures, HEPA filters
  46. What kind of isolation is there for TB patients?
    • respiratory isolation
    • AFB-(acid fast bacillus) isolation
  47. How often should healthcare personnel be screened using skin tests?
  48. How often should healthcare personnel be screened in a high risk setting?
    every 6 months
  49. The CDC recommends what action plan to prevent the spread of TB disease?
    • screening of patients at high risk of TB
    • rapid diagnosis
    • appropriate therapy
    • reducing air contamination
    • providing isolation rooms
    • screening healthcare personnel
    • investigating and controlling outbreaks
  50. Why doesn't surgical masks help prevent TB?
    because it does not allow a seal around your mouth and nose
  51. How small are TB particles?
    1 to 5 microns smaller than dust particles