Study Guide

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randyavery
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278038
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Study Guide
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2014-07-02 13:50:39
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CCEP CCFR STUDYGUIDE
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K-9 STUDYGUIDE
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  1. DEFINE AND LIST TWO BEHAVIORS SEEN IN ALL DOGS.
    Genetic Behavior- Determined by the dog's genes, born into the dog.  A dog's potential is limited by his genetic makeup.

    Environmental Behavior- Behavior that is learned through environmental conditioning.
  2. DEFINE THE TERM DRIVES.
    Drives - Subconscious impulses to react to stimuli.
  3. HOW DO DRIVES AFFECT CANINES?
    Drives are genetic.   

    They can be enhanced or diminished through training, but never created or  eliminated.  

    Under stress, a canine will revert to his drives, not his training.
  4. LIST AND DEFINE THE CRITICAL DRIVES.
    Hunt – Drive to pursue out-of-sight stimuli. 

    Air Scent – Drive to follow wind born odors. 

    Retrieve – Drive to bring prey to the pack. 

    Prey – Drive to pursue, bite, and kill visual prey
  5. LIST AND DEFINE THE DRIVES THAT ELLICIT AN AGGRESSIVE RESPONSE.
    Fight – Drive to measure physical prowess with rivals. 

    Prey – Drive to pursue, bite, and kill visual prey. 

    Survival – Drive to flee from real or imagined danger (flight). Drive to attack real or imagined danger (self-defense). 

    Rank – Drive to achieve higher rank in the pack. 

    Guard – Drive to defend territorial space from intruders. 

    Protection – Drive to defend pack members.
  6. LIST AND DEFINE THE ADVANTAGEOUS DRIVES
    Trainability – Drive to follow the desires of the pack leader. 

    Activity – Drive to move and act. 

    Play – Drive for physical contact with pack members.
  7. LIST AND DEFINE THE MAN MADE DRIVES
    Herding – Drive to circle and direct prey. 

    • Pointing – Drive
    • to passively indicate prey. 

    Drafting – Drive to pull when restricted.
  8. LIST AND DEFINE THE REMAINING THREE DRIVES
    Homing- Drive to return to pack or territory. 

    Tracking – Drive to follow ground disturbance odors. 

    Pack – Drive for emotional contact with pack members.
  9. LIST THE 18 DRIVES
    Hunt 

    Air Scent 

    Retrieve 

    Prey 

    Fight  

    Survival (self-defense & flight) 

    Rank 

    Guard 

    Protection 

    Homing 

    Pack 

    Tracking 

    Herding 

    Pointing 

    Drafting 

    Trainability 

    Activity 

    Play
  10. DEFINE THE TERM CHARACTER TRAITS
    Character Traits- Traits that diminished or enhanced drive behavior.
  11. LIST AND DEFINE THE CRITICAL CHARACTER TRAITS
    Courage – Absence of fear toward objects or in situations.   

    • Confidence – Environmentally
    • conditioned acceptance of safety.  

    Hardness – Resiliency towards unpleasant experiences.
  12. LIST AND DEFINE THE ADVANTAGEOUS CHARACTER TRAITS
    • Sensory Threshold – Amount of stimuli required to engage a drive.         
    • May be high or low for each drive.  

    Temperament – Attitude towards life.
  13. LIST AND DEFINE THE REMAINING CHARACTER TRAITS
    Softness – Remembering unpleasant experiences.  

    Sharpness – Tendency to react aggressively to stimuli.  

    Frustration – Tendency to react aggressively when restricted from stimuli.
  14. COMPARE COURAGE AND CONFIDENCE AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE.
    Courage is genetic while Confidence is environmental. A canine lacking courage towards a situation will be unable to overcome an obstacle (such as a slick floor), whereas a canine lacking Confidence can overcome such an obstacle through slow introduction to the area(rewards throws into area, bringing a canine with confidence already in the area, eat.)
  15. LIST THE RULES FOR PUBLIC CONTACT.
    Never leave any canine unattended with small children.  

    Never perform any demonstration off leash.  

    During any contact with the public always be aware of, and control, the canine's head.  

    Never allow the canine to jump on any person.  

    Never leave the canine chained or tied to an object.
  16. WHY DOES CBP PROCURE CANINES FROM EUROPE?
    The breeding standard in Europe mandates that dogs have a working title, resulting in a larger gene pool for working drives.  American standards are generally for physical appearance only.
  17. WHO IS CREDITED FOR FOUNDING THE GERMAN SHEPERD BREED?
    Max von Stephanitz
  18. WHAT ARE THE TWO BASIC TYPES OF CANINE ORGANIZATIONS?
    National Registries 

    Sporting/Working/Training clubs
  19. LIST THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CANINE HANDLER.
    Use CBP canine to detect concealed humans and the odor of narcotics 

    Conduct maintenance training 

    Safe handling, on and off duty  

    Ensure optimal health of canine 

    Maintain canine records
  20. DEFINE MODULAR TRAINING AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF IT.
    Modular Training – Short, simple lessons which work on one facet of a finished product.  

    Training a dog to search thoroughly for a trained odor by Hard/Easy searches where the canine must search for awhile but is rewarded quickly upon indication.
  21. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF MODULAR TRAINING?
    The training emphasizes only one facet at a time until proficiency is obtained in that facet.  

    The proper ratio of praise and reward to correction is maintained through all phases of training.  

    Mental and physical stress on the canine is kept to a minimum.
  22. LIST AND DESCRIBE THE TWO DETECTION MODULES.
    To search thoroughly for trained odors. 

    Hard/Easy (hard search, easy find). The canine works for a long time and when source is located the canine is rewarded quickly after indicating.  

    To indicate the presence of trained odors. 

    Easy/Hard (easy search, hard find). The canine has an easy/short search but must indicate for a long time before being rewarded.
  23. WHAT ARE THE PASSIVE INDICATION MODULES?
    Odor = Toy 

    Sit obtains Toy 

    Odor + Sit obtains Toy
  24. DEFINE CONFLICT TRAINING.
    Conflict Training – Constantly changing training so that the canine does not become patterned into an incorrect response.
  25. EVERYTHING IN CANINE TRAINING IS CONFLICTED EXCEPT WHAT?
    Correct handling skills 

    The trained odor
  26. WHAT MUST BE DONE TO ENSURE THAT THE CANINE ONLY LEARNS THE ODORS DESIRED?
    Conflict toys/rewards and package materials daily.
  27. LIST THE COMPONENTS OF A COMMAND.
    Command itself Tone of voice Method of enforcement
  28. LIST THE TONES OF VOICE AND BREIFLY DESCRIBE THEM
    Command – short monotone bark 

    Correction – low growling 

    Permissive – high to low 

    Praise – high, happy 

    Agitation – suspicious, whispering
  29. WHAT IS THE PRIMARY RULE OF SEARCHING?
    Perform a safe and thorough search.
  30. EXPLAIN HOW YOU WOULD TAKE YOUR CANINE OUT OF THE REAR OF A TRACTOR TRAILER
    Canine is put on a live ring. 

    Canine is put in a down. 

    Handler climbs out of the trailer. Holding on the collar, call the canine and have him jump out of the trailer ensuring that his rear legs hit the ground first.
  31. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE REWARD TO THE CANINE, USING AN ANALOGY WITH A HUMAN?
    The reward is the canine's paycheck. The handler is the paymaster. 

    The reward must be: 

    Delivered on time. 

    In the correct amount for the work performed.
  32. DESCRIBE THE PREY/RETRIEVE SELECTION TEST.
    The canine is evaluated to see if he will pursue various objects (hard and soft rewards). The canine is on line and one at a time, toys of various materials are thrown onto a hill. The canine is then released with no command and judged on his alert, speed, hunt and grab of each object.
  33. DEFINE THE TERM SCENT
    Scent - Gaseous, particulate, and aerosol matter emitting from a substance.
  34. DEFINE THE TERM ALERT
    Alert – A change of body posture and increased respiration when the dog first encounters the odors he has been trained to detect.
  35. DEFINE THE TERM INDICATION
    Indication – A trained behavior that pinpoints source.
  36. DEFINE THE TERM FRINGE INDICATION
    Fringe Indication – The canine prematurely indicates while tracing odor.
  37. DEFINE THE TERM CONTROL
    Control –Canine's responsiveness to verbal commands and presentations during the search.
  38. DEFINE THE TERM TRACING
    Tracing – Post-alert behavior displayed by the canine while following the odor to source.
  39. DEFINE THE TERM SOURCE
    Source - The strongest concentration of trained odor available.
  40. DEFINE THE THERM OLFACTORY ACUITY
    Olfactory Acuity – The ability to identify and discriminate different odors.
  41. DEFINE THE TERM RESIDUAL ODOR
    Residual Odor – Odor that remains after the source of the trained odor is removed.
  42. DEFINE THE TERM INTENT
    Intent – A canine's ability and desire to systematically hunt for a trained odor.
  43. DEFINE THE TERM PINPOINT
    Pinpoint – Directing the team to move to source.
  44. WHO IS THE SCIENTIST WHO DISCOVERED CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?
    Ivan P. Pavlov
  45. WHAT EFFECTS SCENT MOVEMENT?
    Wind currents (direction and speed) 

    Obstacles 

    Relative temperatures
  46. DESCRIBE WHAT RELATIVE TEMPERATURE IS.
    The temperature of air at source versus the temperature of the surrounding air.
  47. WHEN WOULD YOU TRAIN A CANINE TO RELEASE A TOY?
    As a last result if all other methods have failed.
  48. LIST THE MAJOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
    Search Skills 

    Speed 

    Ritual 

    Reward 

    Reading the dog 

    Leash Performance indicates understanding 


    Voice Tones
  49. LIST THE MINOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
    Vehicle Maintenance 

    Record Keeping 

    Grooming 

    Feedback 

    Aid Preparation
  50. LIST AND DEFINE THE GRADING SCALE
    1Excellent 

    2Above Average 

    3Average 

    4Minimal 

    5Insufficient 

    6Unacceptable
  51. DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE INDICATION.
    • -Advantages          
    • Easier to maintain combination  
    • Reward philosophy 
    • Safer for canine and people finds
    • Less chance of property damage
    • Less chance of evidence destruction 

    • Disadvantages- 
    • Higher chance of handler influence 
    • Less likely to pinpoint source 
    • Harder to train and maintain
  52. UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD AN ON-LEASH RITUAL UTILIZED?
    In situations where it is unsafe to leave a canine in a down position. (i.e. highway)
  53. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A FALSE INDICATION AND A NON PRODUCTIVE ALERT.
    -False Indication vs. -Non Productive Alert  

    • The canine displayed a change of behavior   the canine displayed an alert in an  That the handler interpreted as an alert and uncontrolled field environment  
    • Indication in a controlled training where no tangible trained substances Environment where it had been previously could be located. 
    • Established that no trained odors were present.
    • -residual odor 
    • -officer unable to locate find 
    • -handler error 
    • -canine error
  54. UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD AN ON LEASH RITUAL UTILIZED?
    Hazardous conditions, elevated areas and in situations where it is unsafe to leave the canine in a down position.
  55. WHEN IS A CIRCLE SPIN USED?
    The canine is not engaged in the search 

    The canine does not honor a cast 

    The canine does not turn a corner 

    The handler needs to reposition the canine
  56. WHAT IS THE 20-MINUTE RULE?
    Never work a canine in a systematic search for more than 20 minutes.
  57. WHAT IS THE 2 STRIKE RULE AND HOW IS IT IMPLIMENTED?
    You only allow a canine to break a search pattern on alert twice. 

    You conduct a systematic search of the suspect area. 

    Finish the rest of the search area before returning to the suspect area. 

    This is to conserve canine energy.
  58. DESCRIBE THE 2 METER RULE AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED.
    If during a search: 

    A canine alerts and leaves and area, or You see an area you did not present  

    Perform the two meter technique by: 

    Gaining the canine's attention 

    Spinning in a wide arc Re-present two meters behind the suspected area Maintain proper search speed through the suspect area  

    This prevents cueing and causing an indication.
  59. LIST AND DESCRIBE THE ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH.
    90 Degrees – Body position 

    Left to right – Natural for the handler 

    Low to high – Natural for the canine 

    Natural holes and cracks – Productive areas
  60. LIST THREE OF THE MOST COMMON MISTAKE BY HANDLERS.
    Failure to recognize or respond to an alert 

    Cueing the canine 

    Failure to search productive areas 

    Failure to search items moved out of the search area 

    Incorrect body position 

    Improper leash control
  61. LIST THE REMEDIAL DRILLS USED TO BUILD BASIC HANDLER SKILLS.
    Walking Backwards 

    Laps 

    Leash

    Races 

    Choir Practice 

    Mirror Drills
  62. LIST THE METHODS OF OBTAINING THE REWARD OBJECTFROM A CANINE.
    2 Toy 

    Choke off 

    Kennel Out  

    Out Command
  63. DESCRIBE THE 4 IN 1, METHODOLOGY, AND ITS PRIMARY ADVANTAGE
    4 in 1 method is used to introduce odor to the canine. 

    Up to 4 odors are packaged in one primary reward object. 

    The canine is conditioned to search for and locate the reward object.
  64. DESCRIBE THE MIMINUM STANDARDS OF KENNEL MAITENENCE.
    Clean daily 

    Change water daily 

    Inspect for hazards and security breaches daily 

    Disinfect bi-monthly 

    Spray for insects and parasites as needed.
  65. WHAT ARE THE TWO USES FOR CANINE TRAINING RECORDS?
    Court 

    Training
  66. NAME AND EXPLAIN THE TWO CRITICAL FACTORS OF RECORDKEEPING?
    Validation – Paperwork needs to be signed/examined by a supervisor/trainer. 

    Duplication – Keep 2 copies, in separate locations
  67. DESCRIBE THE IDEAL PASSIVE INDICATION.
    A strong alert 

    Intense desire to follow the odor to source 

    A quick sit upon reaching source 

    An intense pinpointing stare at source, regardless of distractions
  68. WHAT METHOD IS USED TO TEACH CANINES TO SEARCH FOR HUMANS?
    Run-away in-sight
  69. LIST THE ADVANTAGES OF HUNDE AUS LAUFEN.
    Releases mental stress 

    Socializes the canine 

    Combats dog fighting 

    Acclimates canine to the muzzle 

    Corrects equipment fixation 

    Corrects confidence problems
  70. WHAT IS ACCOMPLISHED WITH A PRE-SEARCH RITUAL?
    Checking for hazards 

    Pre-stimulating the canine 

    Check for wind conditions 

    Establishing a search pattern
  71. WHAT ARE THE WEAK POINTS OF ANY SEARCH PATTERN?
    Boundaries 

    Seams
  72. LIST SITUATIONS WHERE A PATROL ROUTE MAY BE USED WHEN UTILIZING YOUR CANINE.
    Searching open areas for concealed people or quantities of narcotics where off leash searching can not be used. 

    Searching hazardous environments 

    Screening vehicles in the primary inspection area of a checkpoint 

    Locating high finds in a tall vehicle 

    Assisting a canine that is encountering a threshold problem.
  73. LIST AND DESCRIBE THE REWARD SYSTEMS USED FOR DETECTION WORK.
    Primary Reward - The canine is rewarded with a scented reward object from the source of the odor.  

    Secondary Reward - The canine is rewarded with an unscented reward object from the handler.  

    Combination Reward – The canine is rewarded with an unscented reward object from the source of the odor.
  74. LIST THE SIGNS OF MENTAL STRESS IN CANINES AND METHODS TO TREAT THEM.
    Ears down 

    Head down 

    Tail down 

    Panting in cool conditions 

    Loose stool Lethargic 

    Loss of appetite 

    Dilated Pupils  

    Treating: Reward Praise Let the dog be a dog (Hunde Aus Laufen)
  75. WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS IN A SEARCH PATTERN?
    Cover all accessible surface and areas 

    Be organized, smooth connected presentations with limited interruptions 

    Moving into prevailing wind currents whenever possible
  76. IF A CANINE STUMBLES COMING FROM A SEARCH AREA WHILE UNDER HOT CONDITIONS, WHAT HAS OCCURRED AND HOW DO YOU HANDLE THE SITUATION?
    The canine is suffering from Heatstroke.  

    Before transporting to the Vet: 

    Cool canine by spraying or submerging its trunk in water 

    Water soaked towels or cold packs are applied to the back of the head, neck, armpit and groin  

    While transporting to the Vet: 

    Keep K9 cool and air conditioned 

    Check rectal temperature every 2 minutes 

    Stop cooling when temperature reaches 103 degrees
  77. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF A CANINE FAILS TO RESPOND TO AN OBIEDIENCE COMMAND?
    Repeat the command in correction voice tone. 

    Enforce the command. 

    Once the canine complies, follow with praise.
  78. LIST THE STEPS TO AN ON-LEASH  RITUAL?
    Allow the dog to take a break. 

    Heel the canine at the perimeter of the search area. 

    With the canine in heel position, perform a cursory search of the area. 

    Begin the search
  79. THE BORDER PATROL CANINE DETECTION TEAM CERTIFICATION IS BASED ON WHAT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD?
    PSpP(R)
  80. A CANINE HAS A DISTENDED STOACH DISTENDED AND IS ATTEMPTING TO VOMIT, WHAT HAS OCCURRED AND HOW DO YOU RECTIFY IT?
    Bloat.  Take the canine to the Vet.
  81. HOW MANY SEARCHES AND FINDS ARE IN THE CBP CERTIFICATION?
    17 Searches, 15 Finds
  82. LIST THE 8 REASONS WHY WE PHYSICALLY REMOVE A CANINE FROM A REWARD.
    Quick process 

    Builds prey drive 

    Saves time Conserves handler energy 

    Conserves canine energy 

    Avoids training an out 

    Safety Allows for quick repetition of exercises
  83. WHAT SUPREME COURT DECISION ADDRESSES THE 4TH AMENDMENT IMPLICATIONS OF A NARCOTICS DOG SEARCH?
    US v Place
  84. WHAT RULING DID THE SUPREME COURT MAKE IN THIS CASE REGARDING DOG SEARCHES?
    Canine sniff is not a search under 4th amendment.  

    Canine sniff is “Sui Generis” (unique).  

    With reasonable suspicion, personal luggage can be detained for a canine sniff.  

    When answering a call for canine sniff, the handler needs to respond in a timely manner.  

    Reasonableness of detention determined by the facts of the individual case.
  85. WHAT APPEALS LEVEL CASE RULES THAT A NARCOTICS DOG'S ALERT ESTABLISHES PROBABLE CAUSE?
    US v Waltzer
  86. YOU ARE CALLED BY A LOCAL NARCOTICS TASKFORCE TO CONDUCT A PATROL ROUTE SEARCH OF A RESIDENTIAL AREA FOR A SUSPECTED CRACK HOUSE. WHAT CASE LAW AFFECTS THIS?
    US v Thomas
  87. WHAT WAS THE COURTS DECISION IN THE CASE YOU JUST CITED?
    Depending on the jurisdiction, a canine sniff of a dwelling absent a warrant or consent may be a 4th Amendment violation. 

    CBP policy prohibits canine sniffs of dwelling exteriors absent a warrant or consent.
  88. A SUPERVISOR REQUESTS YOU USE YOUR DOG TO SEARCH THE BODIES OF SOME ALIENS APPREHENDED IN THE SAME AREA AS SOME ABANDONED BACKPACKS OF MARIJUANA. WHAT COURT CASE AFFECTS THIS?
    Horton v Goose Creek ISD
  89. WHAT WAS THE RELEVANT FACTS AND THE COURTS DECISION IN THE CASE YOU JUST CITED?
    Canine searching lockers, vehicles and students and the court ruled that the dogs could search the lockers and vehicles but the search of the students was a violation of the 4th Amendment.  

    The canine sniff of a person is a search implicating the 4th Amendment. 

    OBP policy prohibits canine sniffs of people or schools.
  90. CAN YOU USE YOUR DOG TO DETERMINE IF THESE ALIENS WERE IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE, AND IF SO, HOW?
    Yes. You remove the aliens clothing and line them up for a systematic search with other non suspect clothing.
  91. WHAT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION ALLOWS FOR THE BRIEF DETENTION OF US CITIZENS FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONDUCTION A DOG SNIFF OF THEIR VEHICLE?
    US v Taylor
  92. WHAT WERE THE FACTS OF THE CASE AND WHAT WAS THE COURTS DECISION?
    Taylor was sent to secondary for an immigration inspection. After being released the agents wanted to run the dog in secondary. The court ruled that a dog sniff within a reasonable amount of time (60 seconds) is not a search.  

    Reasonable suspicion is needed to detain a person after determining citizenship.
  93. WHAT WERE THE DECISIONS IN THE US V DOVALI-AVILA CASE?
    Canine alert is sufficient probably cause for a warrantless search of a vehicle. 

    Canine sniff in the primary inspection lanes of an immigration checkpoint is not a violation of the 4th Amendment. 

    Canine sniff at secondary inspection is not a search violation of the 4th Amendment.
  94. WHAT WERE THE RELEVANT FACTS THAT LED TO THE CONVICTION BEING UPHELD IN THE US COURT OF APPEALS DECISION US V STONE?
    Legal stop 

    Stone opened the hatchback on his own. 

    Dog had already alerted to the outside of the vehicle. 

    The dog jumped into the trunk on his own without a command.
  95. PROBABLE CAUSE / CORRECTIVE MEASURES

    EARS, HEAD, AND TAIL DOWN WHILE SEARCHING
    PC: Mental Stress CM: Praise, Reward or Hunde Aus Laufen
  96. DOES NOT SEARCH WELL IN TIGHT AREAS
    PC: Lack of Courage or Confidence 

    CM: Throw toys into the search area
  97. DOES NTO RESPOND TO A HIGH CAST
    PC: Dog is getting fatigued 

    CM: Spin the dog and represent the area
  98. WILL NOT WORK OVER 30 MINUTES NON-STOP
    PC:  None 

    CM: Canine should not be worked over 20 minutes without a break
  99. KEEPS RUNNING FOR SHADE
    PC: Physical Stress 

    CM: Rest, cool down, isolation
  100. BARKS DURING SEARCHES
    PC: Frustration, handler moving too slowly 

    CM: Speed up the search
  101. PUSHES INTO THE HANDLER WHILE SEARCHING
    PC: Handler moving too slowly 

    CM: Speed up
  102. GRABS ANY CYLINDRICAL OBJECT HE SEES
    PC: Visual fixation 

    CM: Search with dead reward items in the search area and correct the dog of them
  103. STOPS AND URINATES DURING SEARCHES
    PC: dog wasn't given a break 

    CM: break canine before searching
  104. BEGINS TO AVOID ODOR
    PC: dog has been corrected off an alert 

    CM: reward before sit, bomb in, escape
  105. ALERTS AND INDICATES ON EMPTY GAS TANKS
    PC: Olfactory fixation 

    CM: Conflict training on sterile gas tanks
  106. ALERTS WELL BUT SCRATCHES AND BITES AT SOURCE
    PC: handler is not enforcing the sit 

    CM: Sit indication drills
  107. CANINE JUMPS ON THE HOOD OF A CAR ON THE HUP COMMAND
    PC: Canine is trained to jump on hup 

    CM: short leash or use a different command
  108. INDICATES IF THE HANDLER SLOWS DOWN
    PC: handler is inducing the sit 

    CM: handler should speed up
  109. PASSES OVER LARGE AMOUNTS OF NARCOTICS
    PC: threshold problem 

    CM: train with larger amounts, patrol route to introduce larger amounts
  110. FINDS PEOPLE IN OPEN FIELD SEARCHES WELL, BUT PASSE OVER PEOPLE FINDS IN SYSTEMATIC SEARCHES
    PC: Dog needs to see the person before indicating 

    CM: Do run-away into systematic searches
  111. ALERTS AND INDICATES ON ASPIRIN
    PC: Olfactory fixation 

    CM: Do searches with aspirin in area and correct him off them
  112. ALERTS AND INDICATES ON RUBBER
    PC: fixation on rubber 

    CM: conflict rewards
  113. ALERTS AND INDICATES ON PLASTIC BAGS
    PC: fixation on plastic 

    CM: conflict packaging materials
  114. FAILS TO INDICATE FINDS PLACED IN THE FIRST SIX FEET OF A SEARCH AREA
    PC: dog is not searching at the beginning of the search 

    CM: train with more first cast finds
  115. ALERTS AND PINPOINTS WELL BUT DOES NOT INDICATE ON THE INTERIOR OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE
    PC: vehicle is too cramped 

    CM: no corrective measure

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