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DEFINE AND LIST TWO BEHAVIORS SEEN IN ALL DOGS.
Genetic Behavior- Determined by the dog's genes, born into the dog. A dog's potential is limited by his genetic makeup.
Environmental Behavior- Behavior that is learned through environmental conditioning.
DEFINE THE TERM DRIVES.
Drives - Subconscious impulses to react to stimuli.
HOW DO DRIVES AFFECT CANINES?
Drives are genetic.
They can be enhanced or diminished through training, but never created or eliminated.
Under stress, a canine will revert to his drives, not his training.
LIST AND DEFINE THE CRITICAL DRIVES.
Hunt – Drive to pursue out-of-sight stimuli.
Air Scent – Drive to follow wind born odors.
Retrieve – Drive to bring prey to the pack.
Prey – Drive to pursue, bite, and kill visual prey
LIST AND DEFINE THE DRIVES THAT ELLICIT AN AGGRESSIVE RESPONSE.
Fight – Drive to measure physical prowess with rivals.
Prey – Drive to pursue, bite, and kill visual prey.
Survival – Drive to flee from real or imagined danger (flight). Drive to attack real or imagined danger (self-defense).
Rank – Drive to achieve higher rank in the pack.
Guard – Drive to defend territorial space from intruders.
Protection – Drive to defend pack members.
LIST AND DEFINE THE ADVANTAGEOUS DRIVES
Trainability – Drive to follow the desires of the pack leader.
Activity – Drive to move and act.
Play – Drive for physical contact with pack members.
LIST AND DEFINE THE MAN MADE DRIVES
Herding – Drive to circle and direct prey.
- Pointing – Drive
- to passively indicate prey.
Drafting – Drive to pull when restricted.
LIST AND DEFINE THE REMAINING THREE DRIVES
Homing- Drive to return to pack or territory.
Tracking – Drive to follow ground disturbance odors.
Pack – Drive for emotional contact with pack members.
LIST THE 18 DRIVES
Survival (self-defense & flight)
DEFINE THE TERM CHARACTER TRAITS
Character Traits- Traits that diminished or enhanced drive behavior.
LIST AND DEFINE THE CRITICAL CHARACTER TRAITS
Courage – Absence of fear toward objects or in situations.
- Confidence – Environmentally
- conditioned acceptance of safety.
Hardness – Resiliency towards unpleasant experiences.
LIST AND DEFINE THE ADVANTAGEOUS CHARACTER TRAITS
- Sensory Threshold – Amount of stimuli required to engage a drive.
- May be high or low for each drive.
Temperament – Attitude towards life.
LIST AND DEFINE THE REMAINING CHARACTER TRAITS
Softness – Remembering unpleasant experiences.
Sharpness – Tendency to react aggressively to stimuli.
Frustration – Tendency to react aggressively when restricted from stimuli.
COMPARE COURAGE AND CONFIDENCE AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE.
Courage is genetic while Confidence is environmental. A canine lacking courage towards a situation will be unable to overcome an obstacle (such as a slick floor), whereas a canine lacking Confidence can overcome such an obstacle through slow introduction to the area(rewards throws into area, bringing a canine with confidence already in the area, eat.)
LIST THE RULES FOR PUBLIC CONTACT.
Never leave any canine unattended with small children.
Never perform any demonstration off leash.
During any contact with the public always be aware of, and control, the canine's head.
Never allow the canine to jump on any person.
Never leave the canine chained or tied to an object.
WHY DOES CBP PROCURE CANINES FROM EUROPE?
The breeding standard in Europe mandates that dogs have a working title, resulting in a larger gene pool for working drives. American standards are generally for physical appearance only.
WHO IS CREDITED FOR FOUNDING THE GERMAN SHEPERD BREED?
Max von Stephanitz
WHAT ARE THE TWO BASIC TYPES OF CANINE ORGANIZATIONS?
LIST THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CANINE HANDLER.
Use CBP canine to detect concealed humans and the odor of narcotics
Conduct maintenance training
Safe handling, on and off duty
Ensure optimal health of canine
Maintain canine records
DEFINE MODULAR TRAINING AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF IT.
Modular Training – Short, simple lessons which work on one facet of a finished product.
Training a dog to search thoroughly for a trained odor by Hard/Easy searches where the canine must search for awhile but is rewarded quickly upon indication.
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF MODULAR TRAINING?
The training emphasizes only one facet at a time until proficiency is obtained in that facet.
The proper ratio of praise and reward to correction is maintained through all phases of training.
Mental and physical stress on the canine is kept to a minimum.
LIST AND DESCRIBE THE TWO DETECTION MODULES.
To search thoroughly for trained odors.
Hard/Easy (hard search, easy find). The canine works for a long time and when source is located the canine is rewarded quickly after indicating.
To indicate the presence of trained odors.
Easy/Hard (easy search, hard find). The canine has an easy/short search but must indicate for a long time before being rewarded.
WHAT ARE THE PASSIVE INDICATION MODULES?
Odor = Toy
Sit obtains Toy
Odor + Sit obtains Toy
DEFINE CONFLICT TRAINING.
Conflict Training – Constantly changing training so that the canine does not become patterned into an incorrect response.
EVERYTHING IN CANINE TRAINING IS CONFLICTED EXCEPT WHAT?
Correct handling skills
The trained odor
WHAT MUST BE DONE TO ENSURE THAT THE CANINE ONLY LEARNS THE ODORS DESIRED?
Conflict toys/rewards and package materials daily.
LIST THE COMPONENTS OF A COMMAND.
Command itself Tone of voice Method of enforcement
LIST THE TONES OF VOICE AND BREIFLY DESCRIBE THEM
Command – short monotone bark
Correction – low growling
Permissive – high to low
Praise – high, happy
Agitation – suspicious, whispering
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY RULE OF SEARCHING?
Perform a safe and thorough search.
EXPLAIN HOW YOU WOULD TAKE YOUR CANINE OUT OF THE REAR OF A TRACTOR TRAILER
Canine is put on a live ring.
Canine is put in a down.
Handler climbs out of the trailer. Holding on the collar, call the canine and have him jump out of the trailer ensuring that his rear legs hit the ground first.
WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE REWARD TO THE CANINE, USING AN ANALOGY WITH A HUMAN?
The reward is the canine's paycheck. The handler is the paymaster.
The reward must be:
Delivered on time.
In the correct amount for the work performed.
DESCRIBE THE PREY/RETRIEVE SELECTION TEST.
The canine is evaluated to see if he will pursue various objects (hard and soft rewards). The canine is on line and one at a time, toys of various materials are thrown onto a hill. The canine is then released with no command and judged on his alert, speed, hunt and grab of each object.
DEFINE THE TERM SCENT
Scent - Gaseous, particulate, and aerosol matter emitting from a substance.
DEFINE THE TERM ALERT
Alert – A change of body posture and increased respiration when the dog first encounters the odors he has been trained to detect.
DEFINE THE TERM INDICATION
Indication – A trained behavior that pinpoints source.
DEFINE THE TERM FRINGE INDICATION
Fringe Indication – The canine prematurely indicates while tracing odor.
DEFINE THE TERM CONTROL
Control –Canine's responsiveness to verbal commands and presentations during the search.
DEFINE THE TERM TRACING
Tracing – Post-alert behavior displayed by the canine while following the odor to source.
DEFINE THE TERM SOURCE
Source - The strongest concentration of trained odor available.
DEFINE THE THERM OLFACTORY ACUITY
Olfactory Acuity – The ability to identify and discriminate different odors.
DEFINE THE TERM RESIDUAL ODOR
Residual Odor – Odor that remains after the source of the trained odor is removed.
DEFINE THE TERM INTENT
Intent – A canine's ability and desire to systematically hunt for a trained odor.
DEFINE THE TERM PINPOINT
Pinpoint – Directing the team to move to source.
WHO IS THE SCIENTIST WHO DISCOVERED CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?
Ivan P. Pavlov
WHAT EFFECTS SCENT MOVEMENT?
Wind currents (direction and speed)
DESCRIBE WHAT RELATIVE TEMPERATURE IS.
The temperature of air at source versus the temperature of the surrounding air.
WHEN WOULD YOU TRAIN A CANINE TO RELEASE A TOY?
As a last result if all other methods have failed.
LIST THE MAJOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
Reading the dog
Leash Performance indicates understanding
LIST THE MINOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
LIST AND DEFINE THE GRADING SCALE
DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE INDICATION.
- Easier to maintain combination
- Reward philosophy
- Safer for canine and people finds
- Less chance of property damage
- Less chance of evidence destruction
- Higher chance of handler influence
- Less likely to pinpoint source
- Harder to train and maintain
UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD AN ON-LEASH RITUAL UTILIZED?
In situations where it is unsafe to leave a canine in a down position. (i.e. highway)
DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A FALSE INDICATION AND A NON PRODUCTIVE ALERT.
-False Indication vs. -Non Productive Alert
- The canine displayed a change of behavior the canine displayed an alert in an That the handler interpreted as an alert and uncontrolled field environment
- Indication in a controlled training where no tangible trained substances Environment where it had been previously could be located.
- Established that no trained odors were present.
- -residual odor
- -officer unable to locate find
- -handler error
- -canine error
UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD AN ON LEASH RITUAL UTILIZED?
Hazardous conditions, elevated areas and in situations where it is unsafe to leave the canine in a down position.
WHEN IS A CIRCLE SPIN USED?
The canine is not engaged in the search
The canine does not honor a cast
The canine does not turn a corner
The handler needs to reposition the canine
WHAT IS THE 20-MINUTE RULE?
Never work a canine in a systematic search for more than 20 minutes.
WHAT IS THE 2 STRIKE RULE AND HOW IS IT IMPLIMENTED?
You only allow a canine to break a search pattern on alert twice.
You conduct a systematic search of the suspect area.
Finish the rest of the search area before returning to the suspect area.
This is to conserve canine energy.
DESCRIBE THE 2 METER RULE AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED.
If during a search:
A canine alerts and leaves and area, or You see an area you did not present
Perform the two meter technique by:
Gaining the canine's attention
Spinning in a wide arc Re-present two meters behind the suspected area Maintain proper search speed through the suspect area
This prevents cueing and causing an indication.
LIST AND DESCRIBE THE ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH.
90 Degrees – Body position
Left to right – Natural for the handler
Low to high – Natural for the canine
Natural holes and cracks – Productive areas
LIST THREE OF THE MOST COMMON MISTAKE BY HANDLERS.
Failure to recognize or respond to an alert
Cueing the canine
Failure to search productive areas
Failure to search items moved out of the search area
Incorrect body position
Improper leash control
LIST THE REMEDIAL DRILLS USED TO BUILD BASIC HANDLER SKILLS.
LIST THE METHODS OF OBTAINING THE REWARD OBJECTFROM A CANINE.
DESCRIBE THE 4 IN 1, METHODOLOGY, AND ITS PRIMARY ADVANTAGE
4 in 1 method is used to introduce odor to the canine.
Up to 4 odors are packaged in one primary reward object.
The canine is conditioned to search for and locate the reward object.
DESCRIBE THE MIMINUM STANDARDS OF KENNEL MAITENENCE.
Change water daily
Inspect for hazards and security breaches daily
Spray for insects and parasites as needed.
WHAT ARE THE TWO USES FOR CANINE TRAINING RECORDS?
NAME AND EXPLAIN THE TWO CRITICAL FACTORS OF RECORDKEEPING?
Validation – Paperwork needs to be signed/examined by a supervisor/trainer.
Duplication – Keep 2 copies, in separate locations
DESCRIBE THE IDEAL PASSIVE INDICATION.
A strong alert
Intense desire to follow the odor to source
A quick sit upon reaching source
An intense pinpointing stare at source, regardless of distractions
WHAT METHOD IS USED TO TEACH CANINES TO SEARCH FOR HUMANS?
LIST THE ADVANTAGES OF HUNDE AUS LAUFEN.
Releases mental stress
Socializes the canine
Combats dog fighting
Acclimates canine to the muzzle
Corrects equipment fixation
Corrects confidence problems
WHAT IS ACCOMPLISHED WITH A PRE-SEARCH RITUAL?
Checking for hazards
Pre-stimulating the canine
Check for wind conditions
Establishing a search pattern
WHAT ARE THE WEAK POINTS OF ANY SEARCH PATTERN?
LIST SITUATIONS WHERE A PATROL ROUTE MAY BE USED WHEN UTILIZING YOUR CANINE.
Searching open areas for concealed people or quantities of narcotics where off leash searching can not be used.
Searching hazardous environments
Screening vehicles in the primary inspection area of a checkpoint
Locating high finds in a tall vehicle
Assisting a canine that is encountering a threshold problem.
LIST AND DESCRIBE THE REWARD SYSTEMS USED FOR DETECTION WORK.
Primary Reward - The canine is rewarded with a scented reward object from the source of the odor.
Secondary Reward - The canine is rewarded with an unscented reward object from the handler.
Combination Reward – The canine is rewarded with an unscented reward object from the source of the odor.
LIST THE SIGNS OF MENTAL STRESS IN CANINES AND METHODS TO TREAT THEM.
Panting in cool conditions
Loose stool Lethargic
Loss of appetite
Treating: Reward Praise Let the dog be a dog (Hunde Aus Laufen)
WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS IN A SEARCH PATTERN?
Cover all accessible surface and areas
Be organized, smooth connected presentations with limited interruptions
Moving into prevailing wind currents whenever possible
IF A CANINE STUMBLES COMING FROM A SEARCH AREA WHILE UNDER HOT CONDITIONS, WHAT HAS OCCURRED AND HOW DO YOU HANDLE THE SITUATION?
The canine is suffering from Heatstroke.
Before transporting to the Vet:
Cool canine by spraying or submerging its trunk in water
Water soaked towels or cold packs are applied to the back of the head, neck, armpit and groin
While transporting to the Vet:
Keep K9 cool and air conditioned
Check rectal temperature every 2 minutes
Stop cooling when temperature reaches 103 degrees
WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF A CANINE FAILS TO RESPOND TO AN OBIEDIENCE COMMAND?
Repeat the command in correction voice tone.
Enforce the command.
Once the canine complies, follow with praise.
LIST THE STEPS TO AN ON-LEASH RITUAL?
Allow the dog to take a break.
Heel the canine at the perimeter of the search area.
With the canine in heel position, perform a cursory search of the area.
Begin the search
THE BORDER PATROL CANINE DETECTION TEAM CERTIFICATION IS BASED ON WHAT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD?
A CANINE HAS A DISTENDED STOACH DISTENDED AND IS ATTEMPTING TO VOMIT, WHAT HAS OCCURRED AND HOW DO YOU RECTIFY IT?
Bloat. Take the canine to the Vet.
HOW MANY SEARCHES AND FINDS ARE IN THE CBP CERTIFICATION?
17 Searches, 15 Finds
LIST THE 8 REASONS WHY WE PHYSICALLY REMOVE A CANINE FROM A REWARD.
Builds prey drive
Saves time Conserves handler energy
Conserves canine energy
Avoids training an out
Safety Allows for quick repetition of exercises
WHAT SUPREME COURT DECISION ADDRESSES THE 4TH AMENDMENT IMPLICATIONS OF A NARCOTICS DOG SEARCH?
US v Place
WHAT RULING DID THE SUPREME COURT MAKE IN THIS CASE REGARDING DOG SEARCHES?
Canine sniff is not a search under 4th amendment.
Canine sniff is “Sui Generis” (unique).
With reasonable suspicion, personal luggage can be detained for a canine sniff.
When answering a call for canine sniff, the handler needs to respond in a timely manner.
Reasonableness of detention determined by the facts of the individual case.
WHAT APPEALS LEVEL CASE RULES THAT A NARCOTICS DOG'S ALERT ESTABLISHES PROBABLE CAUSE?
US v Waltzer
YOU ARE CALLED BY A LOCAL NARCOTICS TASKFORCE TO CONDUCT A PATROL ROUTE SEARCH OF A RESIDENTIAL AREA FOR A SUSPECTED CRACK HOUSE. WHAT CASE LAW AFFECTS THIS?
US v Thomas
WHAT WAS THE COURTS DECISION IN THE CASE YOU JUST CITED?
Depending on the jurisdiction, a canine sniff of a dwelling absent a warrant or consent may be a 4th Amendment violation.
CBP policy prohibits canine sniffs of dwelling exteriors absent a warrant or consent.
A SUPERVISOR REQUESTS YOU USE YOUR DOG TO SEARCH THE BODIES OF SOME ALIENS APPREHENDED IN THE SAME AREA AS SOME ABANDONED BACKPACKS OF MARIJUANA. WHAT COURT CASE AFFECTS THIS?
Horton v Goose Creek ISD
WHAT WAS THE RELEVANT FACTS AND THE COURTS DECISION IN THE CASE YOU JUST CITED?
Canine searching lockers, vehicles and students and the court ruled that the dogs could search the lockers and vehicles but the search of the students was a violation of the 4th Amendment.
The canine sniff of a person is a search implicating the 4th Amendment.
OBP policy prohibits canine sniffs of people or schools.
CAN YOU USE YOUR DOG TO DETERMINE IF THESE ALIENS WERE IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE, AND IF SO, HOW?
Yes. You remove the aliens clothing and line them up for a systematic search with other non suspect clothing.
WHAT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION ALLOWS FOR THE BRIEF DETENTION OF US CITIZENS FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONDUCTION A DOG SNIFF OF THEIR VEHICLE?
US v Taylor
WHAT WERE THE FACTS OF THE CASE AND WHAT WAS THE COURTS DECISION?
Taylor was sent to secondary for an immigration inspection. After being released the agents wanted to run the dog in secondary. The court ruled that a dog sniff within a reasonable amount of time (60 seconds) is not a search.
Reasonable suspicion is needed to detain a person after determining citizenship.
WHAT WERE THE DECISIONS IN THE US V DOVALI-AVILA CASE?
Canine alert is sufficient probably cause for a warrantless search of a vehicle.
Canine sniff in the primary inspection lanes of an immigration checkpoint is not a violation of the 4th Amendment.
Canine sniff at secondary inspection is not a search violation of the 4th Amendment.
WHAT WERE THE RELEVANT FACTS THAT LED TO THE CONVICTION BEING UPHELD IN THE US COURT OF APPEALS DECISION US V STONE?
Stone opened the hatchback on his own.
Dog had already alerted to the outside of the vehicle.
The dog jumped into the trunk on his own without a command.
PROBABLE CAUSE / CORRECTIVE MEASURES
EARS, HEAD, AND TAIL DOWN WHILE SEARCHING
PC: Mental Stress CM: Praise, Reward or Hunde Aus Laufen
DOES NOT SEARCH WELL IN TIGHT AREAS
PC: Lack of Courage or Confidence
CM: Throw toys into the search area
DOES NTO RESPOND TO A HIGH CAST
PC: Dog is getting fatigued
CM: Spin the dog and represent the area
WILL NOT WORK OVER 30 MINUTES NON-STOP
CM: Canine should not be worked over 20 minutes without a break
KEEPS RUNNING FOR SHADE
PC: Physical Stress
CM: Rest, cool down, isolation
BARKS DURING SEARCHES
PC: Frustration, handler moving too slowly
CM: Speed up the search
PUSHES INTO THE HANDLER WHILE SEARCHING
PC: Handler moving too slowly
CM: Speed up
GRABS ANY CYLINDRICAL OBJECT HE SEES
PC: Visual fixation
CM: Search with dead reward items in the search area and correct the dog of them
STOPS AND URINATES DURING SEARCHES
PC: dog wasn't given a break
CM: break canine before searching
BEGINS TO AVOID ODOR
PC: dog has been corrected off an alert
CM: reward before sit, bomb in, escape
ALERTS AND INDICATES ON EMPTY GAS TANKS
PC: Olfactory fixation
CM: Conflict training on sterile gas tanks
ALERTS WELL BUT SCRATCHES AND BITES AT SOURCE
PC: handler is not enforcing the sit
CM: Sit indication drills
CANINE JUMPS ON THE HOOD OF A CAR ON THE HUP COMMAND
PC: Canine is trained to jump on hup
CM: short leash or use a different command
INDICATES IF THE HANDLER SLOWS DOWN
PC: handler is inducing the sit
CM: handler should speed up
PASSES OVER LARGE AMOUNTS OF NARCOTICS
PC: threshold problem
CM: train with larger amounts, patrol route to introduce larger amounts
FINDS PEOPLE IN OPEN FIELD SEARCHES WELL, BUT PASSE OVER PEOPLE FINDS IN SYSTEMATIC SEARCHES
PC: Dog needs to see the person before indicating
CM: Do run-away into systematic searches
ALERTS AND INDICATES ON ASPIRIN
PC: Olfactory fixation
CM: Do searches with aspirin in area and correct him off them
ALERTS AND INDICATES ON RUBBER
PC: fixation on rubber
CM: conflict rewards
ALERTS AND INDICATES ON PLASTIC BAGS
PC: fixation on plastic
CM: conflict packaging materials
FAILS TO INDICATE FINDS PLACED IN THE FIRST SIX FEET OF A SEARCH AREA
PC: dog is not searching at the beginning of the search
CM: train with more first cast finds
ALERTS AND PINPOINTS WELL BUT DOES NOT INDICATE ON THE INTERIOR OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE
PC: vehicle is too cramped
CM: no corrective measure