Cardiology

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Author:
Sheilaj
ID:
278039
Filename:
Cardiology
Updated:
2014-07-02 22:05:54
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AIM science cardiology
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Description:
week 2 of aim. cardiology
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  1. Three layers of the heart
    pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
  2. Circulation of the blood flow
    right atrium> tricuspid > right ventricle > pulmonary valve > pulmonary artery > lungs > pulmonary veins > left atrium > bicuspid valve> left ventricle > aortic valve > Aorta
  3. type of blood of right atrium
    de oxygenated blood
  4. type of blood in the left atrium
    oxygenated blood
  5. what blood vessel brings blood to the right atrium
    Right coronary artery
  6. the purpose of the fossa ovale
    allows oxygenated blood to go to the right and left side of the heart from the mom, and it bypasses the lungs
  7. the walls of which ventricle is larger?
    the left- it has to pump blood to the body while the right only has to pump to the lungs
  8. sytole is...
    when the heart is contracting
  9. distole is...
    when the heart is filling with blood
  10. what are the coronary arteries and the importance?
    the arteries deliver blood to the heart- then supply the muscles in the heart with blood
  11. what happens during the LUB DUB sound?
    it happenes when the valves are snapping shut
  12. What is the SA node?
    it's the pacemaker of the heart and controls the rate at which the heart beats
  13. what is and ECG?
    it measures the rate and regularity of the heart beat using the electrical currents from the contraction
  14. PQRST?
    p- activation of the atria, qrs- activation of the ventricles, t-recovery wave
  15. Cardiac imput?
    the amount of blood the heart puts out in a minute
  16. cardiac output equation
    SV x HR
  17. what is stroke volume?
    volume of blood pushed out of the left ventricle per heart beat
  18. what is heart rate?
    number of heartbeats per minute
  19. what is atherosclerosis?
    lipid build-up in the coronary arteries
  20. what is Aortic Stenosis?
    the narrowing of the valve or aorta
  21. what causes muscle contraction
    action potential (electric signal) - acetylcholine at the synapse - act receptors bind with act.(binds to muscle)- calcium is released and the muscle contracts
  22. what is the neuromuscular junction
    the point where the act is released from neuron to bind to muscle membrane
  23. what is acetycholine?
    Act is like the current of the muscle contracting process- causes an ion gradient.
  24. what is muscle contraction?
    the shortening of muscle fibers
  25. what is actin and myosin?
    actin is thin fibers and myosin is thick fibers
  26. what is the role of actin and myosin in muscle contraction
    they overlap each other to shorten the muscle
  27. what is ATP and what role does it play in muscle contraction
    its energy with three phosphates, helps to reload the head of the myosin fiber
  28. three types of muscle in the body and examples
    skeletal-biceps, smooth-intestine, cardiac-heart
  29. what is a striated muscle
    a muscle with layers of thick and thin fiber that make up the sarcomere
  30. what is syncytium
    when the muscles move together in sync
  31. where in the body will you find a lot of smooth muscle
    the GI system
  32. what is the special characteristic of cardiac muscle
    it has syncytium, its striated, made of intercalated disks (gap junctions), fatigue resistant
  33. 3 drugs used for hypertension
    Diltiazem, Amlodipine, Verpamil- they block Ca2+ so the blood vessels can expand (hypertrophy)
  34. the difference between type I and type II diabetes mellitus
    • type I- the body does not produce insulin (juvenile and genetics)
    • type II- the body doesn't respond to insulin (lifestyle)
  35. insulin and its function
    protein from beta cells from pancreas, causes blood sugar to drop.
  36. pathophysiology of diabetes
    because of the lack of insulin or the lack of response to insulin the body maintains high levels of glucose(hyperglycemia)
  37. glycation
    excess sugar that lead to non-enzymatic glycosylation
  38. symptoms of diabetes
    frequent urination, frequent thirst, excessive fatigue, blurry vision, cuts and bruises that can't heal, and tingling, pain, numbness in hands and feet
  39. two ways to treat diabetes
    sulfonylureas and Biguanides
  40. sulfonylureas
    they work to stimulate Beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin
  41. Biguanides
    lower the amount of glucose produced by the liver and make muscle tissue more sensitive to insulin
  42. how long does insulin take to work
    10-15 minutes
  43. complications of uncontrolled diabetes
    heart disease, blindness, neuropathy, skin infection, hypertension, kidney disease, stroke, loss of limbs, blood vessel damage
  44. the body's main fuel sorce
    glucose
  45. what is the role of glucagon
    it raises the blood glucose level, from alpha cells in the pancreas
  46. how to measure long-term glucose levels
    • use the HbA1C
    • 7 or below is good
    • 8 or higher is bad
  47. metabolic syndrome
    the disorder of energy utilization and storage
  48. how to diagnose metabolic syndrome
    • 3 of 5 of these symptoms
    • abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein levels (HDL)
  49. main difference between an artery and vein
    artery takes blood away from heart and veins take blood to the heart
  50. type of muscle found in arteries and veins
    smooth muscle
  51. which component of the blood circuit has the greatest cross sectional area
    capillaries
  52. each component of the blood circuit
    aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava
  53. blood flow direction of the artery
    foward
  54. kind of blood the pulmonary artery carries
    deoxygenated blood
  55. kind of blood peripheral arteries
    oxygenated blood
  56. do all oxygenated blood carry oxygenated blood
    no
  57. what does the pulse represent
    the constant refilling and contractions of the heart
  58. the main cell type that contributes to atherosclerosis
    white blood cells
  59. what is an observable side effect of atherosclerosis
    shortness of breath, chest and abdominal pain
  60. blood flow direction of veins
    toward the heart
  61. the purpose of the valve
    they prevent back flow of the blood
  62. blood in pulmonary veins
    oxygenated
  63. blood in peripheral veins
    deoxygenated blood
  64. varicose veins
    when there's a build-up of pressure in the veins and damages the valves. the blood back flows and creates a pocket
  65. what occurs in the capillaries
    gas exchange
  66. flow equation
    • V=IR
    • pressure=(flow)(resistance)
    • flow=(pressure)/(resistance)
  67. what important molecule does the blood carry
    O2

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