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2014-07-02 14:33:40

Muscles .5
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  1. Apical Surface
    the layer of plasma membrane on the apical side (the side toward the lumen) of the epithelial cells in a body tube or cavity
  2. Basal surface
    The bottom edge of the epithelial tissue abuts the basement membrane; this bottom edge
  3. Fibroblasts
    A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals
  4. Collagen fibers
    The fibrous protein constituent of bone, cartilage, tendon, and other connective tissue
  5. Elastic fibers
    are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix[1] of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries.
  6. Reticular Fibers
    is a type of fiber in connective tissue[1] composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells.[2] Reticular fibers crosslink to form a fine meshwork (reticulin). This network acts as a supporting mesh in soft tissues such as liver,
  7. Adipose tissue
    is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes
  8. Areolar (loose) connective tissue
    Is a loos connective tissue that consists of a meshwork of collagen, elastic tissue and reticular fibers.
  9. Reticular connective tissue
    is a type of connective tissue.[1] It has a network of reticular fibers, made of type III collagen.
  10. Dense regular connective tissue
    has fibers as its main matrix element.[1]Dense connective tissue is mainly composed of collagen type I. Crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells, that manufacture the fibers.
  11. Dense irregular connective tissue
    • has fibers that are not arranged in parallel bundles as in dense regular connective tissue.
    • This tissue comprises a large portion of the dermis.[1] This type of tissue is also in the protective white layer of the eyeball and in the deeper skin layers.
  12. Chondrocytes
    are the only cells found in healthy cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans.
  13. Lacunae
    One of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone, supposed to contain nucleate cells.
  14. Osteocytes
    An osteocyte, a star-shaped cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone
  15. Lacunae
    One of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone, supposed to contain nucleate cells.
  16. Plasma
    the yellow-colored liquid component of blood, in which blood cells are suspended
  17. Erythrocytes
    Red blood cell
  18. Leukocytes
    White blood cells
  19. Acromial
    • Shoulder bone (tip knott)
    • Highest point of the shoulder
    • Bony process of the scapula.
  20. Antebrachial
    the area of the upper limb between elbow and hand
  21. Buccal
  22. Calcaneal
    Heel Bone
  23. Carpal
    is the anatomical assembly connecting the hand to forearm.
  24. Cephalic
  25. Cervical
  26. Coxal
    Tail bone
  27. Crural
  28. Dorsum
  29. Fibular
    • The smaller bone in the leg.
    • Most lateral
  30. Frontal bone
    Forehad bone
  31. Gluteal
  32. Hallux
    Big toe
  33. Inguinal
    Hip area
  34. Lumbar
    Low back
  35. Mammary
  36. Manus
  37. Mental
  38. Nasal
  39. Occipital
    Back of head
  40. Olecranal
  41. Oral
  42. Orbital
  43. Otic
  44. Palmar
  45. Petellar
    • Knee cap
    • Pectoral
  46. Pedal
  47. Pelvic
  48. Perineal
    • Taint
    • Area between genitalia and anus
  49. Plantar
    Sole of the foot
  50. Pollex
  51. Popliteal
    Behind the knee
  52. Sacral
    Tail bone above coccyx
  53. Scapular
    Shoulder blade area
  54. Sternal
    Middle of chest
  55. Sural
    Calf (back of leg)
  56. Tarsal
    Ankle bones
  57. Thoracic
  58. Umbilical
    Navel region
  59. Sagittal plane
    Plane that cuts the body into left and right
  60. Midsagittal plane
    Middle of the body
  61. Parasagittal plane.
    Sagital just not in the middle
  62. Frontal (Coronal) plane
    Cuts body into posterior and anterior sides
  63. Transverse plane
    Cuts body into superior and inferior
  64. The Planes
    • Sagittal
    • Frontal
    • Transverse
  65. The body cavities.
    • Dorsal
    • Cranial
  66. Dorsal body cavity
    • Cranial cavity
    • Vertebral cavity
  67. Cranial cavity contains?
    The brain
  68. Vertebral body cavity contains?
    The spinal cord
  69. Ventral cavity has what other cavities?
    • THoracic
    • Abdominopelvic
  70. Thoracic cavity contains?
    • Heart
    • liver
    • lungs
  71. Abdominopelvic cavity contains what cavities
    Abdominal and pevic
  72. Abdominal cavity
    • Large and small intestine
    • Spleen
    • Colon
    • stomach
    • pancrease
    • gall bladder
  73. Pelvic cavity
    • Bladder
    • Genetalia
  74. Region of abdomen.
    • Right/ right hypochondriac
    • Epigastric
    • Left and right lumbar
    • Umbilical region
    • Left and right iliac region
    • Hypogastric region.
  75. Serous membranes is?
    is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which secrete serous fluid, and an underlying thin epithelial layer
  76. What is the Serosa?
    Same as a Serous membrane
  77. What is Serous fluid?
    The fluid between the layers of the serous membrane
  78. What is the Parietal serosa level?
    The outer layer of the serous membrane
  79. What is the Visceral Serosa?
    The inner layer of the serous membrane that is covering the organ
  80. Intagumentary
  81. Endocrine system
    Glands that secrete hormones
  82. Levels of organization
    • Chemical
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • system
    • organism
  83. What is the Endoderm?
    • The inndermost layer of the germ cells.
    • Forms stomach, colon, bladder, lungs, trachea, thyroid
  84. What is the Ectoderm?
    • The outermost layer of the germ cells
    • Forms. Hair, skin, nails, teeth and nervous tissue
  85. What is the Mesoderm?
    • The middle layer of te germ cells.
    • Forms connective tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone
  86. What is the anatomy of the cell?
    • Nucleolus
    • Rough ER
    • Smooth ER
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Peroxisomes
  87. What is the Mitochondria?
    • The power house of the cell.
    • Where glycolisis and the Kreb cycle occurs.
    • Has its own DNA
  88. What is the rough ER?
    • Is rough due to the ribosomes
    • Shuddles AA in Ribosomes with information to the golgi apparatus
  89. What are the Ribosomes?
    They synthesize protein
  90. What is the Golgi apparatus?
    Where the protein is read and sent to the appropriate site in or out of the cell
  91. What are te Peroxisomes?
    Peroxides that oxidize/break down/ neutraize free radicals.
  92. What is the smooth ER?
    • Breaks down lipids
    • synthesises sex hormones.
    • Transports lipids
  93. What is the make up of the Plasma membrane?
    • Made up of phospholipids with the hydrphobic, nonpolar tails on the inside and the polar hydrophilic heads on the outer side.
    • Has integral, peripheral protiens
    • Cholesterol imbeded in the plasma membrane.
  94. What are peripheral proteins?
    Proteins on the outside or inside of the plasma membrane, not throught the lipid bilayer.
  95. What are Integral proteins?
    Proteins that pass through the lipid bilayer.
  96. What are the three factors that bind cells together?
    • Glycoproteins
    • Wavy countours
    • Junctional complex
  97. What is a tight junction?
    • Fusion of adjacent plasma membranes.
    • Impeprmeable membrane.
    • (bladder)
  98. What are Desmosomes?
    • Anchoring junctions with Keratin filaments (intermediate filaments.)
    • Runs between adjacent cells.
    • Common in high stress areas such as skin, heart and uterine neck
  99. What is a Gap Junction?
    • Communicating Junction between adjacent cells.
    • Allow chemicals to pass from on cell to the next via connexons (hallow cylinders)
  100. What is a connexon?
    Channel between cells that alow electolytes to pass
  101. What is simple diffusion?
    • Nonpolar and lipid soluable subtance diffuse along concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer
    • Passive transport. Area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  102. What is Carrier-Mediated Facilitated diffusion?
    Carrier-mediated trans-membrane proteins that transport specific polar molecules that are to large to pass through the membrane.
  103. What is Cahnnel-meiated Facilitated Diffusion?
    Trans-membrane proteins that transport substances such as ions or water through aqueous channels.
  104. What is Osmosis?
    Diffusion of a solvent such as water though a channel prtein such as aquaporin
  105. What is Primary Active Transport?
    • Uses ATP to move solutes agains concentration gradient
    • Powered by the hydrolysis of ATP.
    • (Sodium potassium pump)
  106. What is the Secondary Active transport?
    • Powered directly by energy stored in ionic gradients.
    • Coupled system - move 2 substances at the same time.
    • Symport system - same direction
    • Anitport system - Opposite direction
  107. What is Exocytosis?
    • Inside to outside
    • Ejects substance fomr the interior to the extracelluar fluid
    • Examples: Hormone extretion, Neurotransmitter release, Mucus secreation
  108. What is Endocytosis?
    Brings stuff inside
  109. What are the three types of Endocytosis?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Pinoytosis
    • Receptor-mediated
  110. What is Phagocytosis?
    • Type of Endocytosis
    • Encloses foreign object or debris
    • Infold creates a vesicle that brings large particles or macromolecules substance into cytoplasm
  111. What is a Pinocytosis?
    • Type of Endocytosis
    • Bulk-phase endocytosis
    • Brings fluid and disolved substance into cell
    • Absorption by digestive membranes.
  112. What is Receptor mediated endocytosis?
    • Selectively brings substance into cell
    • Most body cell bring in macromolecules such as enymes, insulin, hormones, lipoproteins and iron.
  113. What are Microfilaments?
    Part of the cytoskeleton mede of actin subunits
  114. What are Intermediate filaments?
    Part of the cytoskeleton, made of Keratin
  115. What are Microtubules?
    Part of the cytoskeleton, a coil of globular "tubulin" protein.
  116. What are Microvilli?
    • The thinest rods on the suface of the cell
    • Brace and strenghten cell surface.
    • Controls cell motility and shape
  117. What is a Kinetomsomes?
    • Structures associated with movement
    • All are composed of Microtubules and anchored around the Centrosome
  118. What are the Centroiles?
    • They attach and move spendle fibers
    • Involved in cell division
  119. What are the basal bodies?
    Centroiles that form base of cilia that anchor and control cilia
  120. What are cilia?
    Microtubles that move substances along the cell surface.
  121. What are Fagella?
    • Tails of a cell.
    • Propel sperm
  122. What are the four basic tissue types?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  123. What is Epithelial tissue?
    The lining/covering and secretory or glandular tissue
  124. What is connective tissue?
    Is supportive and nutritive tissue
  125. What is Muscular tissue?
    Contracts to produce movement
  126. What is Nervous tissue?
    Integration and control tissue
  127. What are some characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    • Closely packed, mostly uniform
    • Avascular but innervated (nourished through diffusion)
    • Cells are joined by junctional complexes
    • Regenerate rapidly
    • Have Apical-basal polarity
  128. What are the different shapes of epithelium cells?
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
  129. What is a simple arrangement of epithelial cells?
    • 1 layer, absorption, secretion in filtration areas
    • Thin
  130. What is the Pseudostratified arrangement of epithelial cells?
    • 1 squashed layer that appears to be more then one.
    • The key to identifying is the nucleus are not in a line and the cells are normally columnar
  131. What is the stratified arrangement of epithelial cells?
    2+ layers, found in high-abrasion areas.
  132. What is the transitional arrangement of epithelial cells?
    • Found in areas that stretch, such as the bladder
    • Looks like balloons rising with the most fool at the top
  133. What is simple squamous Epithelium?
    Single layer of flattened cells with a disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest epithelia
  134. What is the function of simple squamous epithelium?
    • Allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration in sires where protection is not important.
    • Secretes lubricating substances in serosae
    • Thinnest tissue in the body
  135. Where are Simple squamous epithelial cells located?
    • Kidney glomeruli
    • alveoli
    • lining of the heart
    • blood vessels
    • lymphatic vessels
    • lining of the ventral body cavity
    • Capillaries
  136. What do simple squamous cells look like under a microscope?
    • A fried egg
    • Scales
    • irregular tiles
  137. Where are simple squamous Endothelium found?
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Blood vessels
    • heart
  138. What are Mesothelium cells found?
    • Serous membranes in ventral cavity and covering organs.
    • Mesenteries and visceral pleura
    • A type of Endothelium cell
  139. What are simple cuboidal epithelium?
    Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei
  140. What are the function of simple cuboidal epithelium?
    Secretion and absorption
  141. Where are simple cuboidal location?
    • Kidney tubules
    • ducts and secretory portions of small glands
    • Ovary surface
  142. What do simple cuboidal epithelium look like under a microscope?
    They look like small irregular cubes with an almost circular large nuclei
  143. What is simple columnar epithelium?
    • Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei;
    • some cells bear celia;
    • layer may contain mucus secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
  144. What is the function of simple columnar epithelium?
    • Absorption
    • secretion of mucus and enzymes
    • ciliated forms move mucus
  145. Where are simple columnar epithelium located?
    • Nonciliated type line the digestive tract, gallbladder, and some excretory glands
    • Ciliated type line the small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus
  146. What do simple columnar look like under a microscope?
    They are very long with the nuclei lining up
  147. What are Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium?
    • Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface
    • Nuclei seen at different levels
    • may contain mucus secreting cells and beat cilia
  148. What is the function of Pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
    Secrete substance, particularly mucus. propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
  149. Where are the Pseudostratified columnar epithelium located?
    • Nonciliated type in male sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands
    • Ciliated variety lines the trachea, most in the upper respiratory tract.
  150. What is PCE?
    Non-celiated pseudostratified epithelium
  151. What is PCCE?
    Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
  152. What are Stratified Squamous epithelium?
    • Thick membrane composed of several cell layers.
    • Basals cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; Surface cells are flattened.
    • In keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead
    • Basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layer.
    • Basal cells of the squamous are cuboidal or columnar
  153. Where are stratified squamous epithelium cells found?
    High abrasion areas, such as the skin
  154. What are non-keratinized stratified squamous?
    Stratified squamous cells found in moist areas such as the esophagus, mouth and vagina
  155. What are keratinized stratified squamous cells?
    Stratified squamous cells found on the epidermis
  156. What is the function of stratified squamous cells?
    Protects underlying tissue in areas subjected to abrasion
  157. Where are transitional Epithelium cells located?
    Lines the urinary tract where it provides stretchability
  158. What does transitional epithelium cells look like?
    • 2+ layers
    • Basal cells look cuboidal or columnar
    • Surface cells look dome when not stretched.
    • When stretched they look squamous
  159. What are transitional epithelium cells?
    • Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal
    • Basal cells cuboidal or columnar
    • Surface cells dome shaped or squamous like depending on degree of stretch
  160. What are Stratified cuboidal epithelium cells?
    • 2+ layers of cuboidal layers
    • Found in placed doing lots of secretion, not common
    • Found in ovarian follicles, salivary glands, sweat glands, pancreas
  161. What is Glandular Epithelia?
    • Is a type of simple cuboidal cells
    • Excretes mucus, sweat, oil, saliva and bile
  162. What is an exocrine gland?
    • Unicellular goblet cell
    • Multicellular
    • Excretes outside the body, such as ear wax
  163. What are the modes of Exocrine secretion?
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  164. What are Endocrine glands?
    • Internally secrete, into the extracellular space
    • Ductless
    • Secretes thyroid, thymus, ovaries, pituitary hormones
  165. What are the different types of tubular secretory structures?
    • Simple duct structure
    • Compound duct structure
  166. What is simple duct structure?
    • Simple tubular, one column like duct
    • Simple branched, three column like ducts
  167. What is the compound duct structure?
    Multiple column like ducts