Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2014-07-02 15:33:06
What is psychology?
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  1. it is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes
  2. propose reasons for relationships among events, as in perception of a threat can arouse feelings of anxiety
  3. descriptive terms and concepts are interwoven into ___
  4. it is undertaken because the researcher is interested in the topic
    pure research
  5. designed to find solution to specific personal or social problems
    applied research
  6. help people with psychological disorders adjust to the demands of life
    clinical psychologists
  7. use interviews and tests to define their clients' problems
    counseling psychologists
  8. employed by school systems to identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with learning
    school psychologists
  9. attempt to facilitate learning, but they usually focus on course planning and instructional methods for a school system rather than on individual children
    educational psychologists
  10. study the changes -- physical, cognitive, emotional, social -- that occur throughout the life span
    developmental psychologists
  11. identify and measure human traits and determine influences on human thoughts process, feelings, behaviour
    personality psychologists
  12. concerned with the nature and causes of individuals' thoughts, feelings and behaviour in social situations
    social psychologists
  13. study ways that people and the environment influence one another
    environmental psychologists
  14. specializes in basic processes such as nervous system, sensation and perception, learning and memory, thought, motivation and emotion
    experimental psychologists
  15. focuses on relationships between people and at work
    industrial psychologists
  16. make technical systems such as automobile dashboards and computer keyboards more user friendly
    human factors psychologists
  17. study the behaviour of shoppers in an effort to predict and influence their behaviour
    consumer psychologists
  18. study the effects of stress on health problems such as headaches cardiovascular disease and cacer
    health psychologists
  19. apply psychology with the criminal justice system
    forensic psychologists
  20. helps athletes concentrate on their performance and not on the crowd
    sports psyhologists
  21. "Know Thyself"
  22. argued that human behaviour is subject to rules and laws
  23. suggested that we could think of behaviour in terms of a body and a mind
  24. pointed out that behaviour is influenced by external simulation
  25. suggested that we should rely on rational thought and introspection to gain self knowledge
  26. careful examination of one's thoughts and emotions
  27. published the book Elements of Psychophysics
    Gustav Theodor Fechner
  28. is showed how physical events (such as lights and sounds) are related to psychological sensation and perception
    Elements of Psychophysics
  29. where did Wilhelm Wundt establish the first psychological laboratory
    Leipzig, Germany
  30. saw the mind as a natural event that could be studied scientifically
    Wilhelm Wundt
  31. founded structuralism
    Wilhelm Wundt and his students
  32. attempted to break conscious experience down into objective sensation and subjective feelings
  33. founder of functionalism
    William James
  34. it focused on behaviour as well as the mind or consciousness
  35. founder of bahaviourism
    John Broadus Watson
  36. focuses on learning observable behaviour
  37. means that the behaviour has a positive outcome
  38. founders of gestalt psychology
    • Kurt Koffka
    • Max Wertheimer
    • Wolfgang Kohler
  39. name of both the theory and personality and the method of psychotheraphy developed by Sigmund Freud
  40. proposes that much of our lives is governed by unconscious ideas and impulses that originate in childhood conflicts
  41. seek the relationship between the brain, hormones, heredity and evolution AND behaviour and mental processes
    biological perspective
  42. venture into the realm of mental processes to understand human nature
    (psychologists with) Cognitive perspective
  43. it is cognitive in flavour yet emphasizes the role of subjective experience
    humanistic existential perspective
  44. stresses the human capacity for self fulfillment and the central roles of consciousness self awareness and decision making
  45. is seen as the force that unifies our personalities
  46. views people as free to choose and as being responsible for choosing ethical conduct
  47. humanistic-existential perspective is grounded in the works of ___
    • Carl Rogers
    • Abraham Maslow
  48. contemporary psychologists who follow theories derived from Freud
  49. neoanalysts who focused less on unconscious process and more on conscious choice and self direction
    • Karen Horney
    • Erik Erikson
  50. suggest that people can modify and create their environment
    social-cognitive theorists
  51. addresses many of the ways people differ from one another
    sociocultural perspective
  52. share cultural heritage, race, language or history
    ethnic group
  53. culturally defined concepts f masculinity and femininity