test 2c

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  1. bicarbonate HCO3 norm
    • 22-28 mEq/mL
    • if it's higher the pH increases and the body gets into alkalosis
    • lower --> lower pH --> acidosis
    • these are METABOLIC changes, rather than respiratory
  2. PaCO2 norms, consequences
    • infant: 34-54
    • adult: 35-45
    • if low, respiratory alkalosis
    • if high, respiratory acidosis
    • (bc you think of CO2 as an acid)
  3. Scaphoid pad
    Thomas heel
    do what?
    • support the medial longitudinal arch
    • prevent pes valgus
  4. discriminative touch, proprioceptive sensibility, vibration for the UE are carried in what trac?
    posterior white columns, fasciculus cuneatus
  5. discriminative touch, proprioceptive sensibility, vibration for the LE are carried in what trac?
    posterior white columns, fasciculus gracilis
  6. anterolateral system pathways (spinothalamic tracts) convey what
    pain and temp
  7. spinotectal track conveys what info
    spinovisual reflexes
  8. typical UE spasticity pattern post-stroke
    • shoulder add
    • elbow flex
    • forearm pronated
    • wrist and fingers flexed
  9. for a bactericidal effect use which electrode
    • cathode -- the negative current will hurt the bacteria and attract neutrophils 
    • put the cathode IN the wound
  10. use an anode to promote healing in what kind of wounds
    • clean, uninfected
    • and again, place it in, not near, the wound
  11. normal HR range
    60-100 bpm
  12. can you exercise a pt in a-fib?
    yes, but if the HR gets above 115-120 bpm can be dangerous bc the diastolic filling time is now quite decreased
  13. WC problem that can --> sacral sitting w kyphotic upper back
    excessive leg length from seat to foot plate -- pt will slide forward to reach the foot plate and wind up in this position
  14. most common infection transmitted to health care workers
    hepatitis B
  15. aphasia is common with an infarct where in the brain
    left cerebral (both wernicke's and broca's are on L side)
  16. early intervention on a type II SLAP repair?
    careful ROM of IR
  17. SLAP types 1-4
    • 1: partial tear to labrum but it's not completely detached
    • 2: sup labrum is torn off (most common. usually 2/2 injury like a shoulder dislocation)
    • 3: bucket handle (has locking, popping, clunking)
    • 4: tear extends into biceps tendon
  18. ST segment elevation w significant Q waves is indicative of what
    aneurysm or wall motion abnormality
  19. RR in Graves' disease
    • (hyperthyroidism)
    • increased
    • HR will be increased too, and pt may have dysrhythmias and breathlessness
  20. gallbladder can refer pain where
    posterior thorax
  21. ovaries refer pain where
    lower back
  22. appendix refers pain where
    R lower quadrant
  23. motion allowed by a SACH foot
    • limited sagittal plane motion (primarily PF)
    • very limited frontal plane motion (mediolateral motion)
  24. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural space --> shifting the trachea to the contralat side
  25. how does a collapsed lung affect the trachea?
    • pulls it towards the collapsed side
    • (the conditions where there's stuff in the lung pushes the trachea away, while in this case the volume loss puts a pull on the trachea)
  26. how would a L pneumothrax affect the trachea
    • push it to the R
    • (air in the pleural space)
  27. how would a L pleural effusion affect the trachea
    push it to the R
  28. digastric muscles do what
    lower the jaw
  29. geniohyoid muscles are what
    mandibular depressors
  30. for R lateral excursion of mandible, use which muscles
    • L med and lat pterygoids
    • R temporalis
  31. subscap attaches to which tuberosity
  32. on the Geriatric Depression scale what kind of score indicates depression?
    • high 
    • >8/30
  33. Bunnel-Littler test is for what
    differentiates between capsular and intrinsic muscle tightness for the MCP or PIP jts
  34. how to do the Bunnel-Littler test
    • passively flex the PIP while MCP is straight, then release it, passively flex the MCP and then the PIP
    • note the amount of PIP flexion in both cases

    • if no changes, it's capsular
    • if PIP flexion increases when MCP is flexed, it's intrinsic (lumbrical) muscle tightness
  35. retinacular test looks for what
    tightness around PIP - whether it's capsular or retinacular ligs
  36. how to do the retinacular test
    • 1) stabilize PIP while flexing DIP
    • 2) flex both
    • if flexion is limited in both cases, it's capsular
    • if more DIP flexion when there's PIP flexion, the retinacular ligs are tight
  37. stage II lymphedema is char by
    • nonpitting edema
    • connective scar tissue and clinical fibrosis
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test 2c
license exam
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