The process whereby power is drained from civil society and peripheral institutions of the state and concentrated instead within the core executvie
A largely instrumental political relationship between individual of higher socioeconomic status (the patron) who uses his own influence and resources to provide protection or benefits or both for person of lower status (the client) who for their part reciprocates by offering general support and assistance to the patron.
Client Patron network
The series of vertical links that bind patron and client where the client of one patron often commands their own patronage network lower down the chain.
Legal- Rational political order
Political authority built on impersonal state institutions which rule respecting acknowledged patterns of rules
A psychological relationship between the governed and their governors which engenders a belief that the state's leaders and institutions have a right to exercise political authority over the rest of society.
Where patrimonial rule (see below) is exercised through the remnants of legal-rational institutions.
Where formal political mobilization is channeled through a single state-sponsored party.
Political authority based on an individual where the state itself and the affairs of state are the personal interest of the ruler. All within this political system owe their position and loyalty to the one leader
A system of government where one individual commanding the heights of state institutions and patron-client networks enjoys a virtual monopoly on all formal political activity within a territory
Where the military acts and the vanguard of a revolution replacing traditional political institution with more radical structures of government.
The use or threat of violence to achieve a political or social purpose
Coup d' etat
A sudden illegal displacement of government in which members of the security forces play a prominent role.
Where the military outs a failing government allegedly in the national interest
A psychological relationship between the governed and their governors which engenders a belief that state personnel and institutions should be obeyed.
Commonly held political ideas attitudes and behavior that permeate a society
The acceptance that the military should remain under political control and not use it's capacity to inflict violence in an effort to influence the political process.
Where the military intervenes to arrest political transition protecting it's corporate interest.
A term (meaning private hunting ground) used to convey the extent of France's diplomatic, economic and military activities within Franco-phone America.
Containment of Communism
The primary goal of US foreign policy during the Cold War, which aimed to restrict opportunities for communist expansion globally.
Diplomatic and military activity more common in the 1990's, where state sovereignty may be violated in order to protect a population's human rights.
A reference to the french speaking group of states or 'commonwealth'.
Non-interference in domestic jurisdiction
The respect of state sovereignty among countries' jurisdictions where it is agreed that no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of a another.
The demands of 'good governance' to which aid donors required recipient states to conform.
A local conflict which has been 'internationalized', effectively making the protagonists surrogates of competing 'superpowers'.
A state that is too weak to meet the empirical demands of a sovereign territory, but is still recognized as a full member of the international system of sovereign states.
The claim of supreme political authority within a territory.
Interest due on loan repayments
An economic strategy that seeks to reduce a state's dependence on imported foreign goods, substituting these with domestically manufactured produce.
International financial institutions
Non-governmental bodies that help regulate the international economy, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
State institution charged with buying goods from producers and then selling these on the international market.
Economies that rely heavily on a small number of (primary) exports for the bulk of their national income.
Economic control and exploitation that Western powers still retain over the ex-colonies after independence
Public sector companies or agencies, such as state marketing boards, state manufacturing industries, or state transport companies.
Economic activity, e.g. mining and agriculture, other than secondary manufacturing industry or the service sector.
The price paid by state agencies to primary producers for their harvests/output.
Neo-liberal economic reform strategies promoted by international financial institutions during hte 1980s and 1990s.
Terms of trade
The ration of a state's income from exports, measured against the cost of tis imports
A problem where the international economy purchases (Third World) primary produce relatively cheaply, compared with the expensive costs of (Western) manufactured products in the same market.
The result of state policies exploiting production, and revenues raised, from the rural sector, used to subsidize government and economic activities in urban regions.
Where citizens have to pay for public services at the point of use (prompted by SAP reforms).
A psychological relationship between the governed and their governors, which engenders a belief that state personnel and institutions should be obeyed.
The abandonment of legal-rational practices by officials in order to secure personal gain.
Crisis of accumulation
The failure to states to provide political structures able to represent civil society.
Crisis of governance
The failure of states to provide political structures able to represent civil society.
Disengagement, exit and survival strategies
The act of distancing civil society activities from the state, by=passing state authority (for instance, by the use of parallel markets).
An 'ideological' challenge to state authority from within civil society, using violence.
Literally 'rule by thieves'. A state that exploits, rather than serves, civil society (also termed a vampire, pirate or predatory state).
Over-developed or bloated bureaucracies
Bureaucracies and parastatals that are too large to be supported by their hosts economies, and are dominated by imperatives of patronage.
Alternative illegal economic markets, which seek to avoid exploitation by formal state regulations (also termed the second economy or the shadow economy).
Generating a private income from one's position in state office
Where formal central state institutions no longer command authority
Where officials, pressed by a lack of resources, prune stat activity to perform only specific (self-interested) functions, rather than the previous wider public services.
Economic activity that fails to produce a profit or a surplus of capital.
A state, usually unstable, that seeks to serve the private interest of its leaders, and does not seek to generate legitimacy among it's citizens or provide public service.
Consolidation of democracy
Insuring that the democratic process endures beyond the first multi-party election. This will be assisted by a favorable political culture, a strong civil society and a supportive economy.
A form of government where sovereignty rests with the people
Double turnover criteria
The view that the democratic process has not been proven until elections have removed two regimes fairly and peacefully from office
Where the military instigates a coup d' etat to block the civilian political process
The shared political ideas and attitudes and beliefs that underlie a society
Rejuvenation of civil society
A reference to the revitalization of African associational life in the 1980s and 1990s caused by organizations de-linking themselves from government co-option and by civil society moving in political space vacated by the state.
Re legitimizing the State
State efforts to forge new links with civil society in the wake of the crisis of legitimacy and governance.
A political party acting more as vehicle for the personal interest of it's leader rather than genuinely aggregating demands emanating from society.