PSY100: Quiz 1

Card Set Information

PSY100: Quiz 1
2014-07-14 16:37:30
PSY100 Quiz1
Quiz 1, chapters: Intro and Research
Show Answers:

  1. Random assignment
    participants have equal chances of being selected for the experimental and the control group
  2. Correlations
  3. Replicating Experiments
  4. What is an experiment? (pg 40)
    a formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about the causes of behavior
  5. Psychology is...
    • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 
    • -behaviour
    • -mind
    • -conscious experience
    • (see pg 26-)
  6. experimental group
    the group of participants exposed to the independent variable
  7. control group
    group of participants exposed to all the conditions except the independent variable
  8. Variables
    Independent- controlled by the experimenter, suspected causes for differences in behavior.

    Dependent- measures the results of the test, reveal the effects, are often measured by performance (i.e. test scores)

    Extraneous- conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment (room temp, amount of sleep, etc)
  9. Uncritical Acceptance
    the tendency to believe positive or flattering descriptions of yourself
  10. Conformation Bias
    we remember or notice things that confirm our expectations and forget the rest (ex. horoscopes)
  11. Barnum Effect
    tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if they are stated in general terms (PT Barnum: "Always have a little something for everybody.")
  12. Case Study
    in-depth focus on a single subject
  13. Experimental study
    investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation

    • easy to find cause and effect
    • under the control of the experimenter
  14. Correlational Study
    A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two of more events, measures or variables.

    two observations or events that are correlated (linked together in an orderly way).
  15. Naturalistic Observation
    the active observation of behavior in a natural setting

    Limitations: observer bias. observer effect.
  16. Survey Method
  17. Population
  18. Representative Sample (random)
  19. Critical thinking in psychology involves
  20. Correlation coefficients range from:
    -1.00 to +1.00
  21. Biological Perspective
  22. Psychological Perspective
  23. Sociocultural Perspective
  24. Types of Psychology
    Structuralism- Wilhelm Wundt, father of psychology. (stimulus+introspection=reaction)

    Functionalism- William James, how the mind functions to help us adapt to the environment. (stream of consciousness)

    Behaviorism- (Watson, Pavlov, etc) conditioning, nothing intangible exists

    Psychoanalytic- (Freud) Id, Ego, Superego. Unconsciousness and Dream Interpretation

    Humanistic- interested in human potentials ideals, and problems. 

    Eclectic psychology- the mixing pot of psychological waves (Biopsychosocial)
  25. Ethics (pg 42)
  26. overt behaviour
  27. placebo effect
    changes in behavior caused by the belief that one has taken a drug
  28. researcher bias
    changes in behavior caused by the unintended influence of a researcher
  29. Clinical Method
  30. phrenology and Franz Gall
    measuring the bumps on the head and mapping how it is correlated to personality
  31. Psychology's Goals (pg17)
    • Description-  naming and classifying based on detailed records of scientific observation
    • Understanding-  ability to state the underlying causes of behavior
    • Prediction- ability to forecast behavior accurately
    • Control- altering conditions that affect behavior (getting someone over their fear of spiders.)
  32. Empirical Evidence
    Information gained from direct observation and the basis of scientific observation
  33. Scientific Method
    • 1. Making observations
    • 2. Defining a problem
    • 3. Proposing a hypothesis 
    • 4. Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis
    • 5. Building a theory
    • 6. Publishing results
  34. Scientific observation
    An empirical investigation structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic and inter-subjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers.)
  35. research method
    a systematic process for answering scientific questions
  36. critical thinking
    an ability to reflect on, evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information
  37. pseudo-psychology
    any unfounded system that resembles psychology
  38. research participant bias
    changes in participants' behavior caused by the influence of their expectations