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What are the fasting recommendations for dogs and cats?
- food: 8-12 hrs
- water: 2-4 hrs
Fasting recommendations for horses
- food: 8-12 hrs
- water: 0-2 hrs
Fasting recommendations for cattle
- food: 24-48 hrs
- water: 8-12 hrs
Fasting recommendations for small ruminants
- food: 12-18 hrs
- water: 8-12 hrs
Describe the LOC: mildly decreased LOC, aroused with minimal difficulty.
Describe the LOC: cannot be fully aroused
Describe the LOC: sleeplike state, only aroused with painful stimuli
PLR can be diminished in patients after administration of what two classes of drugs?
Name some components of intracellular fluid
Name some components of extracellular fluid
What is the osmotic pressure of blood plasma?
What are some examples of crystalloid replacement solutions?
- Normosol-R (NR)
- Plasma-Lyte A and R (PA and PR)
- Isolyte S (IS)
- *LR and PR contain calcium and cannot be administered with blood products
What are some examples of crystalloid maintenance solutions?
- Normosol-M in 5% dextrose (NM5)
- Plasma-Lyte 56 in 5% dextrose (PL5)
Signs of fluid overload
- ocular/nasal discharge
- subcutaneous edema
- increased lung sounds
- increased respiratory rate/ dyspnea
- coughing and restlessness
- fluid admin rate ordered by doc
- mL/unit of body weight/time (mL/kg/hr)
- rate at which fluids should be administered.
- # of drops of fluid that must fall in the drip chamber to deliver 1mL of fluid.
- rate at which fluids should be administered
- drops per unit of time. gtt/min
bind to and stimulate the tissue receptors
bind to but do not stimulate receptors.
Partial agonists (opiods)
bind to and partially stimulate receptors
bind to more than one receptor type and simultaneously stimulate at least one and block at least one
What are some reasons for administering pre-anesthetic medications?
- Calm/sedate animal
- Minimize adverse drug effects
- Reduce dose of concurrent drugs
- Smoother induction and recovery
- Muscle relaxation
located on the postganlionic neuron at the junction with the preganglionic neuron
located on the target organ
What are some other effects of certain classes of pre-meds?
- diazepam- appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
- phenothiazines- antiemetic properties
- opiods- many are effective cough suppressants
Which drug is derived from the deadly nightshade plant?
Anticholinergics competitively block acetylcholine at the __________ receptor.
onset of action (IM)
duration of action
- onset of action (IM)- 5 mins
- duration of action- 90mins
onset of action (IM)-
duration of action-
- onset of action (IM)-5mins
- duration of action- 2-3hrs
T/F: glycopyrrolate does not cross the blood-brain barrier
What are the effects of anticholinergics?
- Decreased GI motility, salivary secretions, lacrimal secretions
- Mydriasis- cats
- Diminished PLR
- Bronchodialation - may increase risk of hypoxemia
Adverse effects of anticholinergics
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- Temporary bradycardia
- Thickening of salivary secretions
- Inhibit intestinal peristalisis- colic in horses or bloat in ruminants
What is the difference between a tranquilizer and a sedative?
- tranquilizer- reduces anxiety but does not necessarily decrease awareness.
- sedative- causes reduced mental activity and sleepiness.
What are the three classes of tranquilizers/ sedatives used in veterinary medicine?
- Alpha2 agonists
What is the preanesthetic phenothiazine used in veterinary medicine??
What are some effects of ace?
- calming effect
- NOT AN ANALGESIC
- Protects against arrhythmias
- Worsens respiratory depression
- Decreases allergic response
Adverse effects of ace
- CNS:reduced seizure threshold, aggression/excitement
- Cardiovascular: hypotension- dose dependent
- Penile prolapse
- Decresed PCV-possibly due to splenic enlargement
Breed considerations with ace
- Australian Shepard's- exaggerated effects
- Giant breeds, boxers, greyhounds- very sensitive
- Terriers and cats- more resistant
Effects of benzodiazepines
- calming/ anti-anxiety- old or ill patients
- not sedative or analgesic
- skeletal muscle relaxation
- appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
Adverse effects of benzodiazepines
- CNS- disorientation/excitement- young, healthy dogs
- dysphoria/aggression in cats
- muscle fasciculations in horses
- ataxia/ recumbancy- large animals
- oral admin in cats can cause liver failure
T/F: diazepam is not water soluble
Effects of alpha2-agonists
- analgesia-short acting
- muscle relaxation
Adverse effects of alpha2-agonists
- CNS: change in behavior
- Cardio: bradycardia, hypotension, decreased output (in early phase, vasoconstriction causes hypertension and subsequent bradycardia and decreased cardiac output)
- Respiratory: dose dependent depression
- Transient hyperglycemia
- Vomiting- mostly xylazine
- Increased urination
- Premature parturition in cattle (last trimester)
- Sweating- horses
- Bloat- dogs, cattle, horses
- Salivation and regurgitation- cattle
List some alpha2-agonists and their reversal agents
What is the reversal agent of xylazine?
- more potent and safer than xylazine
- 2X duration of xylazine
List the agonist opiods
List the partial agonists opiods
List the agonist-antagonist opiods
List the antagonist opiods
Which opiods are not considered controlled substances?
antagonists and nalbuphine
How do agonists work?
- bind to and stimulate mu and kappa receptors
- best for moderate-severe pain
How do agonist-antagonists work?
bind to mu and kappa receptors, but only stimulate kappa.
How to antagonists work?
bind to but don't stimulate mu and kappa
T/F: Increase in the dose of ketamine will increase the duration of action, but not the anesthetic effect.
Are dissasociatives analgesics?
Provide significant analgesia to skin and limbs (somatic) but limited visceral analgesia.
What is the cardiovascular effect of dissociatives?
In most animals, increased heart rate, cardiac output and mean arterial bp
What are the respiratory effects of dissociatives?
respiratory depression usually insignificant at normal doses
CNS effects of dissociatives?
- Cataleptiod state
- Intact reflexes
- Ocular effects
- Normal-increased muscle tone
- Sensitivity to sensory stimuli
Adverse effects of dissociatives
- CNS: exaggerated response to touch/ sound, seizure like activity, abnormal behavior, nystagmus
- Cardiovascular: decreased inotropy, increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias
- Respiratory: overdoses may cause depression or arrest, increased salivation and respiratory secretions
- Other: tissue irritation (not necrosis), increased intracranial and intraocular pressure.
In what species is ketamine approved?
Cats, subhuman primates
What drug acts as an NMDA antagonist and helps inhibit the development of wind-up?
What is the difference between potency and efficacy in regard to opiod drugs?
- Potency is a measure of how much drug is required to achieve the desired effect. (potency does not tell you anything about the analgesic effectiveness of a drug)
- Efficacy is the term used to describe the maximum effect that can be achieved from a drug.
In the USA, the NSAIDs approved for use in cats are
occurs when previously silent nociceptors become part of the pain transmission process
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