VTNE: Anesthesia

Card Set Information

VTNE: Anesthesia
2014-07-31 22:56:30

VTNE: Anesthesia
Show Answers:

  1. What are the fasting recommendations for dogs and cats?
    • food: 8-12 hrs
    • water: 2-4 hrs
  2. Fasting recommendations for horses
    • food: 8-12 hrs
    • water: 0-2 hrs
  3. Fasting recommendations for cattle
    • food: 24-48 hrs
    • water: 8-12 hrs
  4. Fasting recommendations for small ruminants
    • food: 12-18 hrs
    • water: 8-12 hrs
  5. Describe the LOC: mildly decreased LOC, aroused with minimal difficulty.
  6. Describe the LOC: cannot be fully aroused
  7. Describe the LOC: sleeplike state, only aroused with painful stimuli
  8. PLR can be diminished in patients after administration of what two classes of drugs?
    • Opiods
    • Anticholinergics
  9. Name some components of intracellular fluid
    K,MG,proteins, phosphates
  10. Name some components of extracellular fluid
    Na,Cl, bicarbonate
  11. What is the osmotic pressure of blood plasma?
  12. Miosis
    pupil constriction
  13. mydriasis
    pupil dialation
  14. What are some examples of crystalloid replacement solutions?
    • LRS
    • Normosol-R (NR)
    • Plasma-Lyte A and R (PA and PR)
    • Isolyte S (IS)
    • *LR and PR contain calcium and cannot be administered with blood products
  15. What are some examples of crystalloid maintenance solutions?
    • Normosol-M in 5% dextrose (NM5)
    • Plasma-Lyte 56 in 5% dextrose (PL5)
  16. Signs of fluid overload
    • ocular/nasal discharge
    • chemosis
    • subcutaneous edema
    • increased lung sounds
    • increased respiratory rate/ dyspnea
    • coughing and restlessness
  17. Prescribed rate
    • fluid admin rate ordered by doc
    • mL/unit of body weight/time (mL/kg/hr)
  18. Infusion rate
    • rate at which fluids should be administered.
    • mL/hr
  19. Delivery rate
    • # of drops of fluid that must fall in the drip chamber to deliver 1mL of fluid.
    • gtt/mL
  20. Drip rate
    • rate at which fluids should be administered
    • drops per unit of time. gtt/min
  21. Agonists
    bind to and stimulate the tissue receptors
  22. Antagonists
    bind to but do not stimulate receptors.
  23. Partial agonists (opiods)
    bind to and partially stimulate receptors
  24. Agonist-antagonist (opiods)
    bind to more than one receptor type and simultaneously stimulate at least one and block at least one
  25. What are some reasons for administering pre-anesthetic medications?
    • Calm/sedate animal
    • Minimize adverse drug effects
    • Reduce dose of concurrent drugs
    • Smoother induction and recovery
    • Analgesia
    • Muscle relaxation
  26. Nicotinic receptor
    located on the postganlionic neuron at the junction with the preganglionic neuron
  27. Muscarinic receptor
    located on the target organ
  28. What are some other effects of certain classes of pre-meds?
    • diazepam- appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
    • phenothiazines- antiemetic properties
    • opiods- many are effective cough suppressants
  29. Which drug is derived from the deadly nightshade plant?
  30. Anticholinergics competitively block acetylcholine  at the __________ receptor.
  31. Atropine:
    onset of action (IM)
    duration of action
    • onset of action (IM)- 5 mins
    • duration of action- 90mins
  32. Glycopyrrolate:
    onset of action (IM)-
    duration of action-
    • onset of action (IM)-5mins
    • duration of action- 2-3hrs
  33. T/F: glycopyrrolate does not cross the blood-brain barrier
  34. What are the effects of anticholinergics?
    • Decreased GI motility, salivary secretions, lacrimal secretions
    • Mydriasis- cats
    • Diminished PLR
    • Bronchodialation - may increase risk of hypoxemia
  35. Adverse effects of anticholinergics
    • Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Temporary bradycardia
    • Thickening of salivary secretions
    • Inhibit intestinal peristalisis- colic in horses or bloat in ruminants
  36. What is the difference between a tranquilizer and a sedative?
    • tranquilizer- reduces anxiety but does not necessarily decrease awareness.
    • sedative- causes reduced mental activity and sleepiness.
  37. What are the three classes of tranquilizers/ sedatives used in veterinary medicine?
    • Phenothiazines
    • Benzodiazepines
    • Alpha2 agonists
  38. What is the preanesthetic phenothiazine used in veterinary medicine??
  39. What are some effects of ace?
    • calming effect
    • Vasodialation
    • Protects against arrhythmias
    • Worsens respiratory depression
    • Antiemetic
    • Decreases allergic response
  40. Adverse effects of ace
    • CNS:reduced seizure threshold, aggression/excitement
    • Cardiovascular: hypotension- dose dependent
    • Penile prolapse
    • Decresed PCV-possibly due to splenic enlargement
  41. Breed considerations with ace
    • Australian Shepard's- exaggerated effects
    • Giant breeds, boxers, greyhounds- very sensitive
    • Terriers and cats- more resistant
  42. Effects of benzodiazepines
    • calming/ anti-anxiety- old or ill patients
    • not sedative or analgesic
    • anticonvulsant
    • skeletal muscle relaxation
    • appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
  43. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines
    • CNS- disorientation/excitement- young, healthy dogs
    • dysphoria/aggression in cats
    • muscle fasciculations in horses
    • ataxia/ recumbancy- large animals
    • oral admin in cats can cause liver failure
  44. T/F: diazepam is not water soluble
  45. Effects of alpha2-agonists
    • sedation
    • analgesia-short acting
    • muscle relaxation
  46. Adverse effects of alpha2-agonists
    • CNS: change in behavior
    • Cardio: bradycardia, hypotension, decreased output (in early phase, vasoconstriction causes hypertension and subsequent bradycardia and decreased cardiac output)
    • Respiratory: dose dependent depression
    • Transient hyperglycemia
    • Vomiting- mostly xylazine
    • Hypothermia
    • Increased urination
    • Premature parturition in cattle (last trimester)
    • Sweating- horses
    • Bloat- dogs, cattle, horses
    • Salivation and regurgitation- cattle
  47. List some alpha2-agonists and their reversal agents
    • Xylazine
    • Detomidine
    • Dexmedetomidine
    • Romifidine
  48. What is the reversal agent of xylazine?
    tolazoline, yohimbine
  49. Dexmedetomdine
    • more potent and safer than xylazine
    • 2X duration of xylazine
  50. List the agonist opiods
    • morphine
    • hydromorphone
    • oxymorphone
    • fentanyl
    • meperidine
  51. List the partial agonists opiods
  52. List the agonist-antagonist opiods
    • butorphanol
    • nalbuphine
  53. List the antagonist opiods
    • naloxone
    • etorphine
    • carfentenil
  54. Which opiods are not considered controlled substances?
    antagonists and nalbuphine
  55. How do agonists work?
    • bind to and stimulate mu and kappa receptors
    • best for moderate-severe pain
  56. How do agonist-antagonists work?
    bind to mu and kappa receptors, but only stimulate kappa.
  57. How to antagonists work?
    bind to but don't stimulate mu and kappa
  58. T/F: Increase in the dose of ketamine will increase the duration of action, but not the anesthetic effect.
  59. Are dissasociatives analgesics?
    Provide significant analgesia to skin and limbs (somatic) but limited visceral analgesia.
  60. What is the cardiovascular effect of dissociatives?
    In most animals, increased heart rate, cardiac output and mean arterial bp
  61. What are the respiratory effects of dissociatives?
    respiratory depression usually insignificant at normal doses
  62. CNS effects of dissociatives?
    • Cataleptiod state
    • Intact reflexes
    • Ocular effects
    • Normal-increased muscle tone
    • Analgesia
    • Amnesia
    • Sensitivity to sensory stimuli
  63. Adverse effects of dissociatives
    • CNS: exaggerated response to touch/ sound, seizure like activity, abnormal behavior, nystagmus
    • Cardiovascular: decreased inotropy, increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias
    • Respiratory: overdoses may cause depression or arrest, increased salivation and respiratory secretions
    • Other: tissue irritation (not necrosis), increased intracranial and intraocular pressure.
  64. In what species is ketamine approved?
    Cats, subhuman primates
  65. What drug acts as an NMDA antagonist and helps inhibit the development of wind-up?
  66. What is the difference between potency and efficacy in regard to opiod drugs?
    • Potency is a measure of how much drug is required to achieve the desired effect. (potency does not tell you anything about the analgesic effectiveness of a drug)
    • Efficacy is the term used to describe the maximum effect that can be achieved from a drug.
  67. In the USA, the NSAIDs approved for use in cats are
    • robenacoxib
    • meloxicam
  68. Allodynia
    occurs when previously silent nociceptors become part of the pain transmission process