is the individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behaviors; the personal "force" that causes you or me to behave in a particular way.
What is morale
is an employee's feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself.
What is scientific management?
is the application of scientific principles to management of work and workers.
What is piece-rate system?
is a compensation system under which employees are paid certain amount for each unit of output they produce.
What is need?
is a personal requirement.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
is a sequence of human needs in the order of their importance.
What is physiological needs?
is the things we require for survival.
What is social needs?
the human requirements for love and affection and a sense of belonging.
What is esteem needs?
is our need for respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth.
What is self-actualization needs?
is the need to grow and develop and to become all that we are capable of being.
What is motivation-hygiene theory?
is the idea that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions.
What is motivation factors?
are job factors that increase motivation, although their absence does not necessarily result in dissatisfaction.
What is hygiene factors?
are job factors that reduce dissatisfaction when present to an acceptable degree but that do not necessarily result in high levels of motivation.
What is Theory X?
is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with Taylor's scientific management; assumes that employees dislike work and will function only in a highly controlled work environment.
What is Theory Y?
is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with the ideas of the human relations movement; assumes that employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals. and by doing so they also achieve personal rewards.
What is Theory Z?
is the belief that some middle ground between type A and type J practices is best for American business.
What is reinforcement theory?
is a theory of motivation based on the premise that rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated, whereas punished behavior is less likely to recur.
What is equity theory?
is a theory of motivation based on the premise that people are motivated to obtain and preserve equitable treatment for themselves.
What is expectancy theory?
is a model of motivation based on the assumption that motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it.
What is a goal-testing theory?
is a theory of motivation suggesting that employees are motivated to achieve goals that they and their managers establish together.
What is management by objectives (MBO)?
is a motivation technique in which managers and employees collaborate in setting goals.
What is job enrichment?
is a motivation technique that provides employees with more variety and responsibility in their jobs.
What is job enlargement?
is expanding a worker's assignments to include additional but similar tasks.
What is job redesign?
is a type of job enrichment in which work is restructured to cultivate the worker-job match.
What is behavior modification?
is a systematic program of reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior.
What is flextime?
is a system in which employees set their own work hours within employer-determined limits.
What is a part-time work?
is a permanent employment in which individuals work less than a standard work week.
What is job sharing?
is an arrangement whereby tow people share one full-time position.
What is telecommuting?
is working at home at the time or for a position of the work week.
What is empowerment?
is making employees more involved in their jobs by increasing their participation in decision making.
What is employee ownership?
is a situation in which employees own the company they work for by virtue of being stockholders.
What is a team?
is two or more workers operating as a coordinated unit to accomplish a specific task or goal.
What is a problem-solving team?
is a team of knowledgeable employees brought together to tackle a specific problem.
What is a virtuoso team?
is a team of exceptionally highly skilled and talented individuals brought together to produce significant change.
What are self-managed teams?
are groups of employees with the authority and skills to manage themselves.
What is a cross-functional team?
is a team of individuals with varying specialties, expertise, and skills that are brought together to achieve a common task.
What is a virtual team?
is a team consisting o members who are geographically dispersed but communicate electronically.