Chap 11

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RubyRose
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27839
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Chap 11
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2010-07-26 16:57:04
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Anatomy
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Nervous System
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  1. The master controlling and communicating system of the body. Its cells communicate by electrical and chemical signals.
    nervous system
  2. Information gathered by the nervous systems sensory receptors. Uses to monitor changes occuring inside and outside the body.
    Sensory input
  3. The process in which the nervous system processes and interprets sensory input.
    Integration
  4. The nervous system's response. Effector organs, such as muscles or glands, are activated.
    Motor output
  5. Two principal parts of the NS.
    • CNS
    • PNS
  6. Part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
    Central nervous system (CNS)
  7. Part of the NS outside the CNS. Consists of spinal and cranial nerves (bundles of axons).
    Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  8. These nerves in the PNS carry impulses to and from the spinal cord.
    Spinal nerves
  9. The nerves in the PNS carry impulses to and from the brain.
    Cranial nerves
  10. Two functional subdivisions of the PNS.
    • Sensory division or afferent
    • Motor division or efferent
  11. The subdivision of the PNS that consists of nerve fibers (axons) that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors.
    Sensory or afferent division
  12. The subdivision of the PNS that transmits impulses from the CNS to the effector organs.
    Mototr or efferent division
  13. Two main parts of the motor or efferent division.
    • Somatic nervous system or voluntary
    • Autonomic nervous system or involuntary (ANS)
  14. Two functional subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system.
    • Sympathetic division
    • Parasympathetic division
  15. Glial cells of the CNS. (4)
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Ependymal cells
    • Oligodendrocytes
  16. Glial cells of the PNS.
    • Satellite cells
    • Schwann cells
  17. Glial of the CNS that is the most abundant and versatile. They support and brace neurons, assist in exchanges between neurons and capillaries, and guide neurons in synapse formation.
    Astrocytes
  18. Glial of CNS that monitor health nearby neurons. Can become a special macrophage when invading microorga isms are present..
    Microglia
  19. Glial in CNS that line the central cavities of the brain and the spinal cord forming a barrier seperating the cerebrospinal fluid and tissue fluid of CNS. Usually cilliated.
    Ependymal
  20. CNS glial that wrap their process around neuron fibers, forming a insulating covering or myelin sheath.
    Oligodendrocytes
  21. Neuroglia of the CNS that forms myelin sheaths.
    Oligodendrocytes
  22. Neuroglia that surround neuron cell bodies in the PNS. Similar to astrocytes of the CNS.
    Satellitle cells.
  23. Neuroglia of the PNS that forms myelin sheaths. Functionally similar to the oligodendrocytes of the CNS.
    Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes
  24. Structuralized unit of the nervous system that conducts messages in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the body to another.
    Neuron or nerve cells
  25. Special characteristics of neurons. (4)
    • Conduct nerve impulses
    • Extreme longevity
    • Amitotic
    • High metabolic rate
  26. The part of a neuron that is the electrical site for signalling.
    Plasma membrane
  27. The biosynthetic center of a neuron that contains the organelles.
    Neuron cell body or soma or perikaryon
  28. The rough ER of a neuron is probably the most active and developed in the body is referred to as...
    Nissl bodies or chromatophilic substance.
  29. These, which are found in the neuron cell body, are important in maintaining cell shape and integrity. (2)
    Microtubules and neurofibrils
  30. Most neuron cell bodies are located in the _NS.
    CNS
  31. Clusters of cell bodies in the CNS.
    Nuclei
  32. Cell bodies lie along the nerves of the PNS.
    Ganglia
  33. Armlike extensions of the cell body of all neurons.
    Processes
  34. The _NS contain both neuron cell bodies and their processes. Bundles of neuron processes are called tracts.
    CNS
  35. The _NS consists chiefly of neuron processes. Bundles of neuron processes are called nerves.
    PNS
  36. These two types of neuron processes differ in the structure and function of their plasma membranes.
    • Dendrites
    • Axons
  37. Short, tapering, branching extensions of motor neurons. This is the main receptove or input region.
    Dendrites
  38. Dendrites convey incoming messages toward the cell body with these short-distance signals.
    Graded potentials.
  39. This arises from a cone-shaped area of the cell body called the hillock. Any long example is called a nerve fiber.
    Axon
  40. How many axons per neuron?
    One
  41. Branches of an axon the extends at right angles.
    Axon collaterals
  42. The branches at the end of an axon.
    Terminal branches or telodendria
  43. The knob-like endings of the terminal branches of axons.
    Axon terminals, synaptic knobs, or boutons
  44. The conducting region of a neuron. It generates nerve impulses and transmits them along the axolemma.
    Axon
  45. The secretory region of the neuron.
    Axon terminals
  46. Axons lack these two structures that are involved in protein synthesis and packaging.
    Nissl bodies and Golgi apparatus
  47. Movement toward axon terminals.
    Anterograde movement
  48. Movement away from axon terminals.
    Retrograde movement
  49. Mitochondria, cytoskeleton elements, membrane components, and necessary enzymes are moved in this direction.
    Anterograde
  50. Organelles that are to be degraded or recycled are moved in this direction.
    Retrograde
  51. Whitish, fatty sheath that covers many nerve fibers. Protects and electrically insulates fibers and increases speed of transmission of nerve impulses.
    Myelin sheath
  52. These fibers conduct nerve impulses rapidly.
    Myelinated
  53. The absence of these in the plasma membrane of myelinated cells make myelin sheaths exceptionally good electrical insulators.
    Channel and carrier proteins.
  54. The bulge of a Schwann cell's plasma membrane that is just external to the myelin sheath that includes the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm.
    Neurilemma
  55. The gaps between Schwann cells that occur at regular intervals along the myelinated axon. Also called myelin sheath gaps.
    Nodes of Ranvier
  56. Axon collaterals can emerge from an axon here.
    Nodes of Ranvier
  57. These form the myelin sheaths of the CNS. They lack a neurolemma the extensions are forming the sheaths.
    Oligodendrocytes
  58. Term that refers to regions of brain and spinal cord containing dense collections of myelinated fibers. Are primarily fiber tracts.
    White matter
  59. Contains mostly nerve cell bundles and unmyelinated fibers.
    Gray matter
  60. Three major neuron groups based on the number of processes extending from cell body.
    • Multipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Unipolar
  61. Most common type of neuron (99%+) and the majority of the CNS. Three or more processes.
    Multipolar neuron
  62. Rare neuron type found in some special sense organs. Two processes - an axon and a dendrite.
    Bipolar neuron
  63. Type of neuron that has a single short process that divides into peripheral and central processes.
    Unipolar neurons or pseudounipolar neurons
  64. Three classifications of neurons based on the direction of the nerve impulse relative to the CNS.
    • Sensory neurons
    • Motor neurons
    • Interneurons
  65. Class of neuron that transmits impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs towards or into the CNS. Unipolar. Cell bodies located outside CNS.
    Sensory, or afferent, neurons
  66. Class of neuron that carry impulses away from the CNS to the effector organs. Multipolar. Cell bodies located in CNS with few exceptions.
    Motor, or efferent, neurons
  67. Class of neurons that lie between motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways and shuttle signals through CNS pathways where integration occur. 99%+ neurons of body. Most confined within the CNS. Multipolar.
    Interneurons, or association neurons
  68. Channels which are always open.
    Leakage, or nongated channels
  69. Three types of gate channels.
    • Chemically or ligand-gated channels
    • Voltage-gated channels
    • Mechanically gated channels
  70. These gates open when the appropriate chemical (i.e. a neurotransmitter) binds.
    Ligand-gated, or chemically gated channels.
  71. Channels that open or close in response to changes in membrane potential.
    Voltage-gated channels
  72. Channels that open in response to physical deformation of the receptor (as in sensory receptors for touch and pressure.
    Mechanically gated channels
  73. Ion flows along this underlie all electrical phenomena in neurons.
    Electrochemical gradient
  74. Two types of signals that can be produced by changes in membrane potential.
    • Graded potentials (incoming signals over short distances)
    • Action potentials (long distance axon signals)
  75. A reduction in membrane potential. Increases probability of producing a nerve impulse.
    Depolarization
  76. Occurs when membrane potential increases, becoming more negative. Reduces probability of producing nerve impulses.
    Hyperpolarization
  77. Short-lived, localized changes in membrane potential that can be either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations. Magnitude varies directly with stimulus strength. Triggered by change in the neuron's environment that cause gated ion channels to open.
    Graded potentials
  78. When the receptor of a neuron is excited by energy (heat, light, other) this stype of graded potential is formed.
    Receptor potential or generator potential
  79. Graded potential that is formed when a neurotransmitter realeased form a neuron stimulates another neuron.
    Postsynaptic potential
  80. A brief reversal of membrane potential with a total amplitude of about 100 mV. Also called a nerve impulse and is typically generated only in axons.
    Action potential
  81. Two types of cells that can generate action potential due to their excitable membranes.
    • Neurons
    • Muscle cells
  82. Four events of action potential.
    • Resting state
    • Depolarization
    • Repolarization
    • Hyperpolarization
  83. Phase of action potential generation when all gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed.
    Resting state
  84. Phase of action potential generation when Na+ channels open after reaching threshold.
    Depolarization
  85. Phase of action potential generation where Na+ channels are inactivating, and K+ channels are open.
    Repolarization
  86. Both the abrupt decline in Na+ permeability and the increased permeability to K+ contribute to this.
    Repolarization
  87. Phase of action potential generation where some K+ channels remain open, and Na+ channels reset.
    Hyperpolarization or undershoot
  88. This restores resting electrical conditions.
    Repolarization
  89. These restore resting ionic conditions.
    Na+ - K+ pumps
  90. The movement of an AP alond the entire length of an axon.
    Propogation
  91. The period from the opening of the Na+ channels until the channels begin to reset to their resting state. Ensures that each AP is a seperate, all-or-none event, and enforces one-way transmission of AP.
    Absolute refractory period
  92. The period following the absolute refractory period. Repolarization is occuring, most Na+ channels are resting, some K+ still open. An axon's threshold is is elevated.
    Relative refractory period
  93. Two factors that the rate of impulse propogation depend on.
    • Axon diameter
    • Degree of myelination
  94. A type of conduction where APs are triggered at nodes. The electrical signal jumps from node to node.
    Saltatory conduction
  95. Group of fibers that are mostly somatic sensory and motor fibers serving the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints. Largest diameter and thick myelin sheaths. Conduct at 150 m/s.
    Group A fibers
  96. These fiber groups are autonomic nervous system mototr fibers serving the viseceral organs; viscreal sensory fibers; and somatic sensory fibers (afferent from skin).
    • Group B fibers
    • Group C fibers
  97. Group of fibers that are lightly myelinated fibers of intermediate diameter. Conduct at 15 m/s.
    Group B fibers
  98. Group of fibers that have the smallest diameter and are unmyelinated. Conduct at 1 m/s.
    Group C fibers
  99. A junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to an effector cell.
    Synapse
  100. A synapse between the axon endings of one neuron and the dendrites of another.
    Axondendritic synapse
  101. A synapse between axon endings of one neuron and the soma of other neurons.
    Axosomatic synapse
  102. The neuron conducting impulses toward the synapse.
    The neuron transmitting the electrical signal away from the synapse.
    • Presynaptic neuron
    • Postsynaptic neuron
  103. Two types of synapses.
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
  104. Less common type of synapse that consist of a gap junction. Neurons joined this way are electrically coupled, synchronized, and transmission is rapid. May be unidirectional or bidirectional. Specialized to control the flow of ions between neurons.
    Electrical synapse
  105. Synapses which are specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters. Can be excititory or inhibitory.
    Chemical synapse
  106. Two parts of a chemical synapse which are seperated by a synaptic cleft..
    • Axon terminal
    • Receptor region

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