BIO 111 EXAM 3

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BIO 111 EXAM 3
2014-07-08 19:25:52
glycolysis photosynthesis krebs eku bio111

bio 111 exam 3 Kenneth blank eku
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  1. Oxidation
    Loss of e-'s
  2. Dehydrogenations
    • Lost e-'s are accompanied by p+'s
    • A¬†hydrogen atom is lost (1 e-, 1 p+)
  3. Aerobic Respiration
    Final e- receptor is oxygen (O2)
  4. Anaerobic Respiration
    Final e- acceptor is an inorganic molecule (not O2)
  5. Fermentation
    • Final electron acceptor is an organic molecule
    • Reduces organic molecules in order to regenerate NAD+
  6. What are the stages of Oxidation of Glucose?
    • Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Oxidation
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis
  7. Glycolysis
    • +Converts 1 glucose to Pyrucate
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • Net production of 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation
    • 2 NADH produced by reduction of NAD+
  8. Pyruvate Oxidation
    • In the presence of O2 pyruvate is oxidized
    • Occurs in the mitochondria in eukaryotes
    • Occurs in plasma membrane in prokaryotes
  9. Products of Pyruvate Oxidation?
    • 1 CO2
    • 1 NADH
    • 1 acetyl-CoA
  10. Krebs Cycle
    • Oxidizes the acetyl group from pyruvate
    • Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
  11. Products of Krebs
    • Release 2 molecules of CO2
    • Reduce 3 NAD+ to 3 NADH
    • Reduce 1 FAD to FADH2
    • Produce 1 ATP
    • Regenerate oxaloacetate
  12. Electron Transport Chain
    • A series of membrane-bound electron carriers
    • Embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
    • Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to complexes of the ETC
  13. Chemiosmosis
    • Accumulation of protons in the intermembrane space drives protons into the matrix via diffusion
    • Membrane relatively impermeable to ions
    • Most protons can only reenter matrix through ATP synthase
  14. Energy Yield of Respiration
    • Theoretical: 38 per glucose¬†(bacteria); 36 (eukaryotes)
    • Actual: 30 ATP eukaryotes
    • *Reduced yield due to "leaky" innermembrane, use of proton gradient for things other than ATP synthesis
  15. Thylakoid membrane
    • internal membrane
    • contains chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments
    • pigments clustered into photosystems
    • (Chloroplast)
  16. Grana
    • Stacks of flattened sacs of thylakoid membrane
    • (Chloroplast)
  17. Stroma
    • semiliquid surrounding the thylakoid membranes
    • (Chloroplast)
  18. Stroma lamella
    • Connect grana
    • (Chloroplast)
  19. Light-Dependent Reactions
    • Require light
    • capture energy from sunlight
    • make ATP and reduce NADP+ to NADPH
  20. Carbon Fixation Reactions
    • light-independent reactions
    • do not require light
    • use ATP and NADPH to synthesize organic molecules from CO2
  21. Photon
    • Particle of light
    • acts as a discrete bundle of energy
    • inversely proportional to the wavelength of the light
    • *Light is a form of energy
  22. Photoelectric effect
    removal of an electron from a molecule by light
  23. Absorption Spectrum
    range and efficiency of photons molecule is capable of absorbing
  24. What happens when a photon strikes a molecule?
    energy is lost as heat, or absorbed by the electrons of the molecule
  25. What are the 2 general types of pigments used in green plant photosynthesis?
    • Chlorophylls
    • Carotenoids
  26. Chlorophyll a
    • main pigment in plants and cyanobacteria
    • only pigment that can act directly to convert light energy to chemical energy
    • absorbs violet-blue and red light
  27. Chlorophyll b
    Accessory pigment or secondary pigment absorbing light wavelengths that chlorophyll a does not absorb
  28. Carotenoids
    • Carbon rings linked to chains with alternating single and double bonds
    • can absorb photons with a wide range of energies
  29. Phycobiloproteins
    important in low-light ocean areas
  30. Antenna complex
    • Hundreds of accessory pigment molecules
    • gather photons and feed the captured light energy to the reaction center
    • aka light-harvesting complex
    • energy not electrons are transferred
  31. Reaction Center (Photosystem organization)
    • 1 or more chlorophyll a molecules
    • passes excited electrons out of the photosystem
  32. Process of light-dependent reactions
    • Primary photoevent
    • charge separation
    • electron transport
    • chemiosmosis
    • *First 3 capture light energy
  33. What are the 2 connected photosystems of chloroplasts and what do they accomplish?
    • P700
    • P680
    • working together, the 2 photosystems carry out a noncyclic transfer of electrons that is used to generate both ATP and NADPH
  34. Photosystem II
    • Resembles the reaction center of purple bacteria
    • Core of 10 transmembran protein subunits with electron transfer components and 2 P680 molecules
  35. Photosystem I
    • Reaction center consists of a core transmembrane complex consisting of 12-14 protein subunits with 2 bound P700 chlorophyll molecules
    • Accepts electron from plastocyanin into the "hole" created by the exit of a light-energized electron
    • passes electrons to NADP+ to form NADPH
  36. Photorespiration
    • oxidation of RuBP by the addition of O2
    • favored when stoma are closed in hot conditions
    • greates low CO2 and high O2
  37. C3
    • Plants that fix carbon using only c3 photosynthesis (Calvin cycle)
    • Can loss 25-50% of fixed carbon through photorespiration
  38. c4
    • add CO2 to Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form 4 carbon molecule
    • use PEP carboxylase
    • greater affinity for co2, no oxidase activity
    • 2 pathways occur in different cells
  39. CAM
    • Temporal solution
    • stomata open during the night and close during the day
    • c4 pathway at night c3 pathway during the day