Biology Lab ex. 5

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  1. masses of similar cells (and their extracellular matrix) that combine together to form membranes or organs
  2. systematic study of tissue types
  3. four basic tissue types in humans
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nerve
  4. two basic roles of epithelial tissue
    • covering/lining
    • glandular
  5. characteristic of a type of epithelium wherein it always has one side exposed or free to face outward or inward
  6. what happens when the cells form a continuous sheet
    they are held together very tightly and have very little matrix (extracellular material)
  7. thin gluelike layer that holds the epithelium in place while remaining highly permeable to water and other substances; attaches the nonfree face of the epithelial sheet to the underlying connective tissue
    basement membrane
  8. why does the basement membrane have to be highly permeable to water and other substances
    epithelia do not have their own blood supply because they are avascular tissues
  9. glands that secrete substances into ducts that empty onto epithelial surfaces
    exocrine glands
  10. glands that secrete substances that diffuse into the bloodstream
    endocrine gland
  11. tissues with one layer (stratum) of cells
  12. more than one layer of cells
  13. false stratified; illusion that there are many layers when there is only one
  14. short, hairlike projections from each cell's free surface that propel material along the epithelial surface
  15. shaped like fish scales; much wider than they are tall when viewed in c.s.
  16. are nuclei always present in cross sections
  17. roughly cube-shaped or rounded squares; tall as they are wide
  18. columnlike cells; taller than they are wide in c.s.
  19. change shape; stretched or compressed into any of the 3 other shapes; always stratified
  20. waterproof material or protein that makes up hair and nails
  21. keratinized or nonkeratinized appearance in stratified squamous tissues
    keratinized - no visible nuclei because of the dead cells

    nonkeratinized - nucleated squamous cells
  22. single layer of flattened cells; linings in blood vessels, alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs; diffusion, filtration, and secretion
    simple squamous
  23. multiple layers of cells: columnar cells along the basement membrane topped by cuboidal cells, then by squamous cells; protection; outer part of the skin, mucous linings of the mouth, vagina, and esophagus
    stratified squamous
  24. have a dense concentration of nuclei (columnar and cuboidal) near the basement membrane, becoming less dense toward the free surface; protection and lubrication
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous
  25. from the epidermis (outer layer) of the skin; no distinguishable nuclei
    keratinized stratified squamous
  26. single layer of cubic cells; secretion, absorption, protective linings; forms kidney tubules where it is specialized for water reabsorption and ion movement
    simple cuboidal
  27. protection, linings, absorption, and secretion
    simple columnar
  28. special cell that is often interspersed among the other columnar cells; large cuplike vesicle that may open onto the free surface
    goblet cell
  29. produced by goblet cells and is secreted in great quantity; lubrication and protection of the epithelial lining
  30. single layer of columnar cells that all attach to the basement membrane; have cilia; lining and secretion of mucus; resembles simple columnar
    ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
  31. stretching; linings; have cuboidal cells in the top layer; may have two nuclei; resembles nonkeratinized stratified squamous
  32. likely to form glands
    glandular epithelium
  33. likely to be found on the palm of the hand
    stratified squamous; it is subject to a lot of friction which need multiple layers that can wear off
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Biology Lab ex. 5
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