Gross Anatomy 1

Card Set Information

Gross Anatomy 1
2014-07-30 12:38:31
gross anatomy
Day 1 lecture
Show Answers:

  1. The branch
    of anatomy that deals with the skeletal muscular system
  2. Skeletal muscle comprises what percent of the total body weight of the human body?
    40 to 50
  3. The specific function of skeletal muscle is
    the production of voluntary movement, contractility
  4. The production of voluntary movement
  5. Basic property of skeletal muscle which allows an individual to produce movement
  6. Each skeletal muscles is considered a(n)
    organ (composed of all tissue types)
  7. Functions of the skeletal muscle
    • Movement
    • Stability
    • Communication
    • Control of Body Openings and Passages
    • Heat Production
  8. Muscle function that enables us to move from place to place (locomotion)
  9. Muscle function that moves air in and out of lungs (respiration)
  10. Muscle function that moves body contents during digestion (chewing, swallowing, getting the food to your mouth, sphincter)
  11. Muscle function that maintains posture
  12. Muscle function that holds articulated bones in place
  13. Muscle function that is responsible for speech
  14. Muscle function that is responsible for facial expression
  15. Muscle function that is responsible for writing
  16. Number one use of the upper extremities
    Manual dexterity
  17. Muscle function responsible for sphincter muscles around eyelids, pupils, mouth, urethral and anal orifices
    Control of Body Openings and Passages
  18. Muscle function responsible for admission of light, food and drink, control elimination of waste
    Control of Body Openings and Passages
  19. Skeletal muscles produce as much as what percentage of our body heat
  20. System by means of which body movements occur
  21. Muscular system works with what systems for sources of energy and
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Circulatory
  22. Muscular system depends on integumentary system for
    • Protection
    • Elimination of heat produced by muscular contractions (sweat)
  23. Muscular system depends on __________ for the stimuli, without which a muscle would be unable to
    nervous system
  24. The basic structural unit of a muscle is the
    muscle fiber (cell)
  25. the number of fibers found within a muscle will depend on
    the size of the muscle
  26. Muscle fibers are grouped into bundles known as
  27. Muscle fibers and fasciculi are bound together by
    connective tissue
  28. Function of Connective Investment of Muscle
    Connects muscle to bone or other structures

    Provides a route through which nerves and blood vessels reach the muscle fibers

    • Provide a non-contractile framework which allows the contraction of a muscle fiber to be
    • transmitted to bone
  29. Each skeletal muscle has how many layers of connective tissue
  30. The delicate connective tissue sheath which surrounds each individual muscle fiber
    and connects it to adjacent muscle fibers
  31. A more dense layer which surrounds each fasciculi and divides the muscle into a
    series of separate compartment
  32. The dense layer of connective tissue which surrounds the entire muscle and
    separates the muscle from surrounding tissue, organs and other muscles.  The epimysium is continuous with deep fascia
    in the area and will continue as the tendon
    of the muscle
  33. muscle fibers are long or short?
  34. Muscle fibers have how many nuclii?
    More than one
  35. Where are the nuclei located in a muscle fiber?
    Round the periphery
  36. Contractile unit of the muscle fiber
  37. Each muscle fiber is contained within a tough, specialized membrane known as the
  38. Exercise may increase muscle size up to an average of about
  39. Adult muscles may be as much as ____ the diameter that they were at birth
  40. Under most circumstances the increase in the size of a muscle is due to an increase in the
    size of
    The individual fibers
  41. The type of increase in the size of a muscle, which is due to an increase in the size of each individual muscle fiber
  42. An increase in the size of a muscle due to an actual increase in the number of muscle fibers.
  43. This method involves subjecting the muscle fibers to high resistance exercise which induce injury to the individual fibers, which is then followed by a regenerative process
  44. The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
  45. Muscles being classified as either red (dark) or white (light) is based on
    the amount of sarcoplasm within the majority of fibers found in the respective muscle
  46. Are found in muscles where long, sustained or continuous contraction are required (dark or light?)
    Dark (Type 1)
  47. Are associated with endurance activities (dark or light?)
    Dark (Type 1)
  48. Are associated with relatively higher levels of continuous metabolic activity (aerobic metabolism) (light or dark?)
    Dark (Type 1)
  49. Higher levels of continuous metabolic activity
    Aerobic metabolism
  50. Extensive capillary beds
    Type 1 (dark)
  51. Slow Twitch
    Type 1 (dark)
  52. Fatigue Resistant
    Type 1 (dark)
  53. Numerous Mitochondria
    Type 1 (dark)
  54. More sarcoplasm does what to the color of a muscle?
    More myoglobin turns the muscle darker (or redder)
  55. More fatty acid/less glycogen
    Type 1 (dark)
  56. Atrophy with immobilization
    Type 1 (dark)
  57. Fewer capillary beds
    Type 2 (light)
  58. Fast twitch
    Type 2 (light)
  59. Fatigues easier
    Type 2 (light)
  60. Less mitochondria
    Type 2 (light)
  61. More glycogen/less fatty acids
    Type 2 (light)
  62. Atrophy with aging
    Type 2 (light)
  63. Sprinter would have light or dark muscle?
  64. Marathon runner would have dark or light muscle?
  65. Are found in muscles are used for quick, more powerful activities and thus related to speed
    and strength (i.e. sprinting, weightlifting, etc.) (light or dark?)
    Light (Type 2)
  66. Are associated with anaerobic metabolism(light or dark?)
    Light (Type 2)
  67. Anaerobic and aerobic metabolism refer to
    the amount of oxygen used for ATP production
  68. An elaborate, tubular network which functions to store and transport calcium ions to the myofibrils
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  69. Tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma which
    allow electrical impulses (nerve impulses) to enter the muscle fiber and make their way to the myofibrils.
    Transverse Tubules (T-System)
  70. a red protein pigment which found in the sarcoplasm of the fiber
  71. Stores the needed oxygen that the fibers need to utilize for its metabolism
  72. Stores the needed oxygen that the fibers need to utilize for its metabolism
  73. Producing ATP anaerobically, you use more
  74. Producing ATP aerobically, you use more
    fatty acids
  75. Contract faster than type I but slower than type II
    Intermediate fibers
  76. Have a greater resistance to fatigue but histologically resemble Type II
    Intermediate fibers
  77. Difference in myoglobin and hemoglobin is found in the
    tertiary structure of the protein molecule
  78. Myoglobin has a greater affinity for ______ than hemoglobin
  79. Contracting proteins of myofilaments
    • actin
    • myocin
  80. Contractile filament found mainly in the I-Bands
  81. Contractile filament found mainly in the A-Band
  82. Prevent nondiscrimanatory bonding of actin and myocin
    Regulatory proteins (tripomyocin, troponin)
  83. Allows the system to operate, by allowing myosin to interact with actin
  84. Requires more or less ATP to relax a muscle as it does to contract a muscle?
    Same amount
  85. How does ATP provide energy?
    ATP breaks down into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
  86. The movement of a muscle is the result of the continuous breakdown and reconstitution of
  87. Muscles use two general metabolic methods to provide ATP...
    One works aerobically and the other anaerobically
  88. "fuel" of the muscle
  89. Released calcium binds with
    Troponin molecules on the actin filaments
  90. Aerobic pathways take place in the
  91. 2 cells that can produce ATP anaerobically
    Muscle cells, nervous cells
  92. Type 1 or Type 2 fibers have more mitochondria?
    Type 1
  93. The more efficient way to produce ATP in a muscle fiber
  94. The fastest way to produce ATP
  95. How does aerobic pathway provide energy for the muscle?
    The pathway creates more energy than is needed for the production of ATP and excess energy is released as heat and contributes to keeping the body at its most efficient temperature
  96. What is needed to produce ATP in the aerobic pathway?
    Fatty acids
  97. Fatty acids are stored in the body's fat cells as
  98. What happens to triglycerides during exercise?
    Released into the blood
  99. Anaerobic pathway depends on what two substances to produce ATP
    Creatine phosphate and glycogen
  100. First substance used by the pathway and allows the muscle to contract immediately
    Creatine phosphate
  101. Always a small amount stored in the muscle fibers
    Creatine phosphate
  102. Second substance used by the anaerobic pathway
  103. How is ATP produced by glycogen
    By process of glycolysis
  104. Where is glycogen stored
    In either muscle fibers or liver cells
  105. One by-product of glycogen that bogs down the body quickly
    Lactic acid
  106. Exercise: Phase 1
    • Lasts for a few minutes
    • Creatine phosphate and glycogen are primary fuel sources
    • As much as 20% of the total glycogen that is stored in a muscle may be utilized during this time
  107. Exercise: Phase 2
    • Shift in the metabolism to more efficient aerobic metabolism
    • Uses fatty acids to produce ATP
  108. Exercise: Phase 3
    • Exercise intensifies
    • Muscle fibers go back to anaerobic production of ATP/utilization of the rest of the stored glycogen
    • Lactic acid accumulates within the fibers
  109. Ergogenic methods to increase muscle function and size
    • Glycogen/Carbohydrate loading
    • Caffeine
    • Blood doping
    • Anabolic steroids
  110. A dietary manipulation used to increase the store of glycogen in muscle fibers
    Glycogen/Carbohydrate loading
  111. If ingested an hour or so before an event, this may help an athlete burn fatty acids more efficiently
  112. May increase calcium permeability
  113. Side effects of caffeine
    • Nervousness
    • Diuretic
  114. Side effects of Glycogen Loading
    • Mental acuity decreased/impaired judgement
    • Light-headed, dizzy, lethargic
    • Gain of water wait
  115. A procedure to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells
    Blood doping/induced erythrocythemia
  116. Risks of blood doping
    • Rashes and fevers
    • Acute hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells)
    • Transmission of viruses
    • Fluid overload which can lead to kidney damage and intravascular clotting of blood
  117. EPO
    Naturally occurring hormone (erythropoeitin)
  118. EPO is a naturally occurring hormone produced in the
  119. EPO travels from the kidneys to the
    bone marrow to produce red blood cells
  120. Synthetic forms of EPO were developed for what use?
    Patients with certain types of anemia
  121. What happens when people with normal levels of RBC's take synthetic EPO?
    Blood thickens to a dangerously high level, can lead to possible cardiac problems and death.
  122. Synthetic forms of the male hormone testosterone
    Anabolic steroids
  123. Why were synthetic forms of the male hormone testosterone developed
    To try to separate the anabolic effect of the hormone from it's androgenic effect
  124. Anabolic refers to
    the stimulation of protein synthesis and thus induction of growth
  125. Androgenic refers to
    the development of secondary sexual characteristics
  126. What schedule drug is an anabolic steroid?
    Schedule III
  127. How do natural and synthetic forms of testosterone differ?
    • Natural testosterone is rapidly metabolized and cleared from the liver
    • Synthetic forms prevent metabolic degradation and thus prolong or enhance its effect on the tissue
  128. Type of AS that is injected and have few side effects, but detectible for months
    Oil based
  129. Type of AS that is usually taken in pill form, more side effects, cleared from the system in weeks
    Water based
  130. Pyramiding
    A procedure where the AS user starts with a low dosage then raises to a peak and then begins to taper down the amount being taken
  131. Stacking
    An AS user using more than one type of steroid (both water and oil based)
  132. How much AS is typically taken in a 6-8 week course
    Up to 500x the amount used for therapeutic treatment
  133. Short term side effects of AS
    • headaches, dizziness, nausea
    • acne, especially on the back
    • shrinkage of the testicles
    • increased aggressivemenss
    • gynecomastia
    • tendon damage
  134. Gynecomastia
    development of breast tissue in men
  135. Why does tendon damage occur as a side effect of AS?
    • Muscles get bigger, tendons don't, so they have trouble supporting the larger muscles
    • Possibly AS inhibit the formation of collagen, the main constituent of tendons and ligaments
  136. Long term side effects of using AS
    • cardiovascular system
    • digestive system (especially liver)
    • reproductive system (especially prostate, testes)
    • endocrine system
  137. Short term side effects of AS in women specifically:
    • increased size of clitoris
    • decrease size of mammary glands
    • development of facial hair
    • deepening of the voice
  138. Side effects of AS on adolescents during puberty
    Closing of the growth plate, resulting in small stature
  139. Physiological effect of anabolic steroid
    • Increases secretion of growth hormone
    • Activates protein synthesis and prevents protein breakdown
  140. Reasons a doctor would prescribe an AS
    • Low testosterone level production
    • To improve mood, alleviate depression
    • Lack of appetite in patients who are chronically ill (AS enhance appetite and increase body weight and muscle mass)
  141. Chemical composition of muscle: 75%
  142. Chemical composition of muscle: 20%
    Protein (mostly myocin)
  143. Chemical composition of muscle: 5%
    Other stuff, not water or protein
  144. Organ that has a higher protein content than water
    Eye (lens) - 35%
  145. Nerve fibers enter and leave a muscle via
    the connective tissue components of the muscle
  146. Transmit impulses from the CNS to each individual muscle fiber, the result of which is a motor response
    Motor/Efferent nerves
  147. A single motor NEURON and the group of muscles it supplies is called
    A Motor Unit
  148. Are a motor unit and fasciculi the same thing?
  149. Smallest part of the muscle which can contract independently
    Motor unit
  150. The strength of the muscle contraction depends on
    the number of motor units being activated or recruited the same time
  151. The size of the motor unit is an indication of
    how much fine control that the muscle carries out
  152. Muscles that carry out precision type of activities contain motor units with
    fewer fibers
  153. Muscles that carry out less precise activities contain motor units with
    more fibers
  154. Where does the motor unit BEGIN?
    The motor neuron (grey matter of the spinal cord)
  155. Anatomy of the motor unit
    Motor neuron (CNS, PNS), neuromuscular junction, muscle fiber (sarcolemma)
  156. The most common neuromuscular junction disorder
    Myasthenia Gravis (autoimmune disorder)
  157. How does Myasthenia Gravis effect the body?
    Abnormal antibodies, which damage and destroy the ACH receptor sites on the sarcolemma of the muscles.
  158. The motor unit begins in the
  159. The pre-synaptic portion of the moto unit is the
    Nerve fiber ending
  160. Muscles that carry out precision type activity compared to those that carry out non-precision type activity have motor units with
    Fewer nerve fibers
  161. Ane xample of a drug that is able to compete with ACH molecules in binding to the ACH receptor sites
  162. NIcotines actions are much more what than ACH?
  163. Snake venoms contain these two things
    Cytotoxins and neurotoxins
  164. How does neurotoxin from snake venom kill you?
    Prevents ACH from binding to theACH receptor sites, no action potential occurs
  165. Antivenom for snake venom is aimed mostly at the
  166. Examples of organophosphates
    Parathion and malathion, found in insecticides
  167. What do organophosphates do in the body?
    Inactivate ACHe (ACH can no loner be rapidly degraded, resulting in an accumulation of ACH at the postsynaptic portion of the junction)
  168. Botulin toxin is the toxin that is released from
    The bacteria known as clostridium botullnum, which causes a severe type of food poisonin known as botulism
  169. Botulin toxin works by
    Bloking the release from ACH from the presynaptic portion of hte neuromuscular junction
  170. Botlin toxin usually affects what first?
    Themuslces supplied by the cranial nerves but can progres to affect the limb and respiratory muscles
  171. All the muscle fibers of a single motor unit have the same
    Histochemical composition (either type 1 or type 2)
  172. Mortality rate of botulism
  173. Are muscle fibers of a single motor unit bound together in the same place in the muscle?
    No, they are considerably scattered throughout the width and length of a muscle
  174. Convey to the CNS afferent/sensory impulses which originate within the muscle as a result of a contraction
    Sensory nerve Fibers
  175. In addition to coordination of muscle function, sensory nerve fiberfs are also involved with
    • Pain
    • Proprioception - by which we are made aware of the orientation of the body and its parts
  176. By which we are made aware of the orientation of the body and its parts
  177. Proproiceptors are a category of
    Sense organs that are found within the musculoskeletal system
  178. Fluid filled sac which contain specialized muscle fibers known as intrafusal muscle fibers
    Muscle spindles
  179. Intrafusal muscle fibers are so named to distinguish them from
    extrafusal muscle fibers (fibers outside the muscle fiber)
  180. Intrafusal and extrafusal muscle fibers differ by
    The existance of efferent and afferent nerve fibers (only intrafusal has both - extrafusal only has efferent)******
  181. The end of the muscle which attaches to the part of the skeletal system that doesn't move when the muscle contracts (anchor)
  182. The end of muscle attached to the bone that moves
  183. Bones connected to muscles by
  184. The part of the muscle that is between the tendon or origin and tendon of insertion is called
    The belly of the muscle
  185. Tendons are composed of
    Collagen fibers
  186. The arrangement of collagen fibers fo the tendon give muscles an important charactaristic -
    Tensile strength
  187. The load necessary to rupture a given material when pulled in the direction of its lenth and allows muscles to withstand considerable amounts of pressure
    Tensile strength
  188. Five advantages tendons give to muscle
    • Tensile strenth
    • Improved leverage by concentrating the force of a muscle in a small area
    • Economize space and maintain limb conformity
    • Acts as a damping tissue to absorb shock andh limit potential damage to bone and tissue
    • Flexible, so that they can bend at joints
  189. Sharpey's fibers function
    Collagen fibers that penetrate deeply into the cortical portion of the bone
  190. Traction injury
    Injury caused by pulling beyond the tensile strength
  191. Avulsion fracture
    Fragment of bone pulled out with the collagen fibers (traction injury)
  192. Innervation to the tendon is always
    Sensory or afferent
  193. Innervation of a tendon serves the purpose of
    Proprioception (telling the brain how much pressure is pulling on the tendon, etc)
  194. Lubricating devices that develop between the tendon and anotherh structure (skin, bone, another tendon, etc)
  195. Function of bursa
    Limit friction and thus inflammation of the tendon (lubricating device)
  196. Anatomically the bursa is
    A sac of connectieve tissues that is filled with synovial fluid
  197. Epimysium
    Deep fascia around skeletal muscle
  198. Intermuscular septum
    Where the epimysium of one muscle meets the epimysium of another muscle
  199. Thickened band of deep fascia which is found at joints and functions to bind down tendons and nerves that cross the joint
  200. Muscle where the fibers run approximately the whole length of the muscle, parallel to the axis
    Strap/fusiform/parallel muscle
  201. Muscle where the fibers are running diagonally
    Pennate muscles
  202. Pennate muscle fibers are typically type 2 or type 1?
    Type 1
  203. Parallel muscle fibers are typically type 2 or type 1?
    Type 2
  204. Musce in which the tendon lies in the center of the muscle and fibers pass to it form each side
  205. The muscle or muscles which are most repsonsible for carrying out a particular movement
    Prime mover/agonist
  206. Assist the prime movers in performing the action by giving more force for a movement, stabilizing a joint which the movers pass over but do not move, or keep the bone of origin of the mover steady
  207. The muscle thath produces the oposit effect from the agonist
  208. Rciprocal innervation
    When a muscle contracts, its antagonists automatically relax.
  209. Co-Reflex phenomenon
    In a newborn, both the agonists and antagonists contract at the same time (also seen in individuals with sensory nerve damage)
  210. No account of the role of muscles would be complete without considering the influence of
    Gravity (some movements are assisted by it, others have to contend against it)
  211. Six things that can cause atrophy of hte skeletal muscle
    • Pathology of the CNS
    • Pathology of the PNS
    • Pathology to the neuromuscular junction
    • Pathology to the individual muscle fibers
    • Injury to any of the above components
    • Prolonged immobilization of the joints or chronic joint disorders
  212. The arm goes from the
    shoulder to the elbow
  213. The forearm goes from the
    Shoulder to the wrist
  214. The S shaped bone situated in the anterior aspect of th eneck
  215. In females, the clavicle is generall
    Shorter, thinner, less curved and smoother
  216. In those who work out their upper body or do considerable amounts of manual labor, the clavicle is
    Thicker, more curved, and it's features are more prominent
  217. Clavicle is a transitional bone between
    The axial and appendicular skeleton and shows charactaristics of both
  218. The clavicle is only present in those vertebrae that use
    Their hands for manual dexterity (humans, monkeys)
  219. The clavicle in quadruped animals, if the clavicle is present it is
    Rudimentary and suspended in muscle and not articulated with the scapula and sternum
  220. What is the function of the clavicle in primates?
    • Transmit forces from the upper extremity to the axial skeleton
    • Acts as a brace, holding the arm free from the trunk (enhances our manual dexterity)
  221. *****add arm anatomy (shoulder girdle, arm, forearm, etc)
  222. *********add pathology (guillan barr, etc)
  223. The process of which the embryonic connective tissues is replaced by bone cells
  224. Bone cells
  225. How many ways can ossification occur?
  226. Intramembranous ossification is
    When bone cells replace a primitive type of connective tissue known as mesenchyme
  227. Endochondral ossification is
    When bone cells replace a very well developed type of connective tissue known as hyaline cartilage
  228. Primary ossification center begins
    Very early in development, in the center of the bone
  229. Secondary ossification centers are located
    At the ends of bones (growth plates)
  230. When do secondary ossification centers show up?
    After birth, some not until you are a teen
  231. First bone to undergo ossification in the fetus
  232. Clavicle has how many ossification centers, where do they appear and when, type of ossification?
    Two primary ossification centers, appear near the center of the bone around the 5th or 6th week of development, intramembranous ossification
  233. Secondary ossification centers of the clavicle when and where, what type of ossification?
    Around 17 years of age near the sternal age of the bone, endrochondral ossification
  234. This bone is oen of the last to finish its ossification, with the secondary classification fusing at about 25 years of age
    Clavicle, sternal end fuses last
  235. Fractures of the clavicle typically occur in what part of the bone?
    First lateral third of the bone, near the first curvature, which is the weakest part of the bone
  236. Cleidocranial dysostosis is
    • Bad development of the skull and clavicle
    • Defective ossification, typically clavicle is missing or abdormally formed
    • Also typically bilaterally
    • Pt tends to be shorter in stature
    • Causes some deformities in skull bones and teeth
    • Happens in both males and females
  237. Inferior angle of scapula falls at which vertebra?
  238. Scapula is found between
    Ribs 2 and 7, between T1 and T7
  239. How many ossification centers of scapula?
    1 primary, 6 secondary
  240. Ossification of scapula is
  241. Acromion process has how many secondary ossification centers?
  242. Corocoid process has how many ossification centers?
  243. Medial border of scapula has how many secondary ossification centers?
  244. Inferior angle of the scapula has how many ossification centers?
  245. Clinical arm runs from
    Acromion process to distal end of humerus
  246. An undescended scapula brought about by attachment to cervical vertebrae by either bone, cartilageg or fibrous attachment
    Sprengel's deformity
  247. Failure of the acromion process to fuse with the rest of the bone
    Os acromidae (growth plate never ossifies)
  248. Paired, cutaneous sweat glands which are foundin both sexes, but are rudimentary and functionless in males
    Mammary gland
  249. In females, mammary glands have become
    Specialized to secrete milk and undergo monthly changes
  250. Primary functions of mammary glands
    • Provide nourishment to the infant
    • Protection against certain types of idsease in infants (immune benefits)
  251. What is usually dislocated with a fracture of hte clavicle?
    Joints are usually not dislocated with this type of fracture
  252. The scapula undergoes what form of ossification?
  253. What has occurred with the condition known as os acromidae?
    The acromion process of the scapula has not fused with the rest of the bone.
  254. Subdivisions of mammary gland lobes
  255. Subdivision of lobules of mammary glands
  256. Reproductive development of mammary glands: at puberty -
    Mammary glandsn increase rapidly in size
  257. Preproductive developmentn of the mammary gland: At each menstrual period
    Tendn to enlarge slightly and exhibit tenderness
  258. Reproductive development of the mammary gland: At each pregnancy
    • Become enlarged and functional, attaining their greattest development during lactation. 
    • After lactation, they return to normal size
  259. Reproductive development of the mammary gland: Menopause
    Undergo atrophy
  260. Hormone secreted by the ovaries and placenta and promotes the growth of the duct system of the mammary glands
  261. Hormone secreted by the ovaries and placenta, promotes the growth of secretory cells in mammary glands
  262. Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, promotes the production of milk after birth
  263. Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary promotes the release of milk
  264. The first secretions from the functional mammary glands
  265. A creamy white to yellowish fluid which begins to be secreted during the last weeks of pregnancy and continues for the first week of breast feeding
  266. Colostrum is especially rich in
    Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin to impart immune function
  267. Besides immunoglobulins and lactoferrin, what else is in colostrum to help the infant?
    Growth factors that affect the infants gastrointestinal tract
  268. Type of milk present from day 6-15
    Transitional milk
  269. How does transitional milk differ from colostrum?
    Fewer immunoglobulins, but higher amounts of lactose and fat
  270. Mature milk composition
    • 88% water
    • 7% lactose
    • 4% fat
    • 1% protein
  271. Describe the blood/lymph supply to the mammary glands
    • Highly vascular
    • Extensive lymphatic supply
  272. Why is breast cancer so easily metastesized?
    Because of the lymphatic drainage supply
  273. Two developmental anomalies of the mammary gland
    • Inverted nipple (retracted nipple)
    • Supernumerary nipples
  274. Cause of a retracted or inverted nipple if it is not congenital
    Underlying carcinoma pulling on the lactiferous ducts
  275. Extra nipples which may or may not be associated with mammary gland tissue
    Supernumerary nipples
  276. Tumor variety found in breast cancer
  277. Two important factors that are thought to increase the risk of breast cancer
    • Family history
    • Never having a child/having your first child after the age of 35
  278. Differences between benign tumors of chronic cystic metastesis and malignant tumors
    • Benign tumors are tender, malignant tumors typically are not
    • Otherwise hard to tell apart, mammography, ultrasound and biopsy (needle aspiration) needed to differentiate
  279. What is galactorrhea
    Nipple discharge not associated with pregnancy or  nursing
  280. Causes of galactorrhea
    Underlying pathology, medication, hormonal abnormalities, breast cancer, or simply elevated hormone levels due to puberty
  281. Enlargement and development of breast tissue in males
  282. Largest and longest bone on the upper extremity
  283. Humerus consists of a shaft and
    Two distinct ends
  284. Number of secondary ossification centers in the humerus
  285. What nerve and blood vessels would be most likely to be damaged with a fracture to the surgical neck of hte humerus?
    • Axillary nerve
    • Circumflex humeral arteries
  286. Fractures at the distal end of the humerus may damage the
    Median and ulnar nerves and brachial blood vessels
  287. Fractures of the shaft of the humerus may damage the
    Radial nerve
  288. Avulsion fractures of the greater tubercle of the humerous are common with
    Falls on the wrist, arm
  289. Pectoralis minor is involved wiht the protraction of the
  290. Pectoralis minor's effect on rib cage
    Elevates, helps with forced inspiration
  291. A unilateral condition in which both the pectoralis major and minor are missing
    Poland Syndrome
  292. Symptoms of Poland syndrom
    • Atrophied mammary glands
    • Absence of several ribs
    • Smaller hand on affected side, possible webbing on fingers
  293. Actions of the subclavian muscle
    • Pulls the clavicle medially (stabilizes the sternoclavicular joint, especially when hanging by your hands)
    • Protective cushion between a fractured clavicle and underlying blood vessels