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- Etiology: protozoan
- Etiological agents: Leishmania donovani & Leishmania canis
- Mechanical Vector: Sand fly
- Common Locations: TX, Central and South America
- Diagnosis: Serology and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Pelodera Dermatitis – caused by_________ that can penetrate the skin and live subcutaneously, migrating and creating erythematous lesions and pruritis.
Common Disease name:
In humans is called
In dogs & cats called:
Symptoms: pruritis and swelling of the skin where animals are in contact with the contaminated soil.
- Common Disease name: Hookworm Dermatitis
- In humans is called: “Creeping Eruption”
- Etiological agent: Ancylostoma braziliense
- In dogs & cats called: Cutaneous Larval Migrans (CLM)
- Etiological agents: Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliense, A. tubaeforme, and Uncinaria stenocephala in the 3rd larval stage.
Heartworms in dogs and cats:
Heartworm in horses and cows:
- Heartworms in dogs and cats: Dirofilaria immitis occur in blood/subcutaneous tissue
- Heartworm in horses and cows: Onchocerca cervicalis & Oncocerca gutturosa – occur under the skin
Argasid Ticks “Soft Tick” – ___________ (________) produces external ear canal infections or _________ with the migration of larvae and nymph stages. Probably accompanied by ___________ the ear mite as well.
- Otobius megnini; Spinous Ear Tick
- otitis externa; Otodectes cyanosis
- Symptoms: head tilt down and head shaking.
- Treatment: organophosphates amitraz, fipronil and antibiotics with alligator forceps to pull them out.
_____ Ticks “Hard Tick” – diseases require 1, 2, or 3 host ticks (mainly 3) utilizing larvae, nymph and the adult forms to serve as vectors to pass along etiological agents like bacteria, rickettsia, etc
What is a condition that is associated with the hard tick?
Which external parasite is implicated with the condition?
What is the treatment for hard ticks?
- Tick Paralysis
- “brown dog tick” Rhipicephalus sanguineus
- remove tick or dip dog to kill tick. Can use concentrated doses of Ivermectin to kill the tick on the skin if you can’t find the tick.
List the nicknames:
- Rhipicephalus sanquineus: “brown dog tick” (3 host tick)
- Dermacentor variablis: “American dog tick” (3host tick)
- Dermacentor andersoni: “rocky mountain wood tick”
- Dermacentor occidentalis: “pacific coast tick”
- Ixodes scapularis: black-legged tick
- Amblyomma maculatum: “gulf Coast tick”
- Amblyomma americanum: “Lone Star tick”
_____________ (mite of poultry) nickname “______” attacking man, dogs, and birds.
_____________ known as “______” is seen different in color (orange-red), larvae is the irritant as it crawls up legs and adheres to the skin.
- Dermanyssus gallinae; “Red Mite”
- North American Chigger; “Red Bug”
Largest of all Parasitic Mite that is seen along the back and rump. Not as pathogenic as most and easily treated with most dips and shampoos.
- Dog: Cheyletiella yasguri
- Cat: Cheyletiella blakei – also ferrets
- Rabbit: Cheyletiella parasitovorax – rabbit
- Nickname: “Walking Dandruff”
What is the pecentage of normal dogs in the US that harbor the demodex mite?
In what year did Owen linked the suppressed the immune system to dogs developing Demodectic mange.
Demodicosis is a _________ disease so all confirmed dogs and bitches should be ________.
Is Demodectic mange contagious?
- hereditary; castrated
- Demodicosis is not contagious Sarcoptes is very contagious
Sacroptes scabiei & Notoedres cati
Life cycle is ________.
Is it contagious?
Endemic ares in USA:
- 21 days
- Very contagious to humans
- Baltimore, Hawaii
List 8 Differential Diagnosis of Sacoptes & Notoedres
- Food Allergy
- Non-seasonal atopy
- Allergic contact or irritant contact dermatitis
- Dermatophytosis (ringworm)
- Pyoderma (bacterial)
- Other parasitic causes - Pelodera, Hookworm, Demodicosis.
List 5 Treatments for Sacroptes/Notoedres
- Dips: Organophosphate dips (Paramite); Lime and Sulfur Dips (LymDyp); Amitraz (Mitaban)
- Topical: Selamectin (Revolution) every 2-4 weeks
- Systemic Products: Ivermectin (Ivomec 1%) subcutaneous every 14 days for 2 to 3 treatments
What is the most common of all mites?
Where are the found?
How do you Diagnose?
What are 3 Treatments?
- Otodectes cyanotis – “Ear Mites”
- Around the ear & face
- cotton swab on a mineral oil slide under 4X magnification
- organophosphates, milbemycin oxime, fipronil every week for 3 weeks
Life Cycle of Otodectes cyanotic
- Egg – 4 days
- Larvae – 3-5 days
- Protonymph – 3-5 days
- Deutonymph – 3-5 days
- Adult – 8 legs and lives for only 2 months
House Mites – are of concern only because of the ________ on respiratory problems in small and allergic animals. _____ mites are found in one gram of dust. _______ is a concern for all breeds but especially in brachycephalic breeds when exposed to hundreds of house mites.
- allergic effect
Flea Activity On The Host:
Fleas will mate within ________ on the host they usually breed after they take a blood meal.
Eggs are produced within _____ on the host
Female flea will average ___ eggs per day. Each female flea will produce ______ eggs in their life
Lifespan is ________
- 12 hours
- 24 hours
- 6 months
What are 5 things will attract fleas?
What 3 conditions that mean death to the egg & larvae?
- 1. dark clothes (esp worn over light shirt)
- 2. lactic acid produced during work & play
- 3. carbon dioxide produced during work & play
- 4. animals standing in the dark
- 5. dry places as opposed to moisture
1. Water 2. Bright Light 3. Low Humidity
__________ – term used by parasitologist to indicate where the eggs have been laid.
What is the percentage of the entire flea population is found on the animal at any one time?
Traditional flea-control procedures have included what flea-control strategies?
- 5% to 10%
- environmental and on-animal
What does IGR stand for?
Insect Growth Regulators are juvenile hormone mimics, which bind to juvenile hormone receptors and prevent survival to the next stage of development
List 2 Insect Growth Regulators and products under each category.
- 1. Juvenile Hormone Analogs (Mimics); Methoprene (Frontline Plus) Pyriproxifen (Nylar)
- 2. Insect Development Inhibitor; Lufenuron (Program)
What product was used for Dermatophytes “ringworm” studies which showed remission of clinical signs much more rapidly than in untreated dogs and cats?
Indicate four factors that contributed to the lack of adequate flea control.
- 1. Prolong life cycle of the fleas
- 2. Resistance and Genetic Variability
- 3. Lack of owner compliance #1 reason
- 4. Urban wildlife
Name 2 Insect Growth Regulators used for large animals
- 1. Cyromazine (Larvadex 1% Premix) works by blocking the formation of new cuticle in the fly larvae - fails to survive the 2nd stage molt. Fed to chickens - passes thru feces
- 2. Diflubenzuron insecticide that interferes with chitin deposition and prevents the shedding of the old skin, leading to the death of larvae and pupae. It also prevents the hatching of eggs. given as a bolus to cattle
List 2 species in which the flies lay eggs on the leaves of rabbit runs
- Cuterebra maculata
- Cuterebra palpebra
Bees, Wasps, and Hornets - Unique of these insect characteristics is the female ______ is adapted for stinging. The stinger breaks off and remains in the wound. If it hits the blood stream it can cause an ________. If it misses the blood stream it creates a skin irritation.
- anaphylactic reaction (Angioneurotic edema)
- remove stinger, steroids, antihistamines, epinephrine (catecholamine) IV and fluids.
List 5 Yeast (2 dermatophytes & 3 Systemic fungal infections)
- Candida albicans - dermatophytes
- Malassezia pachydermatis - dermatophytes
- Cryptococcus neoformans - systemic fungal infection
- Blastomyces dermatitidis - systemic fungal infection
- Histoplasma capsulatum - systemic fungal infection
_________ - This yeast is often found on normal mucus membranes. Generally seen after prolonged antibiotic therapy, immunosuppressive diseases, or skin damage.
Gram stained smears disclose intensely
This etiology will grow on _____ and ____________ as white colonies
- Candida albicans
- wet mounts from skin scraping
- Gram-positive oval yeast cells
- blood agar; Sabouraud’s dextrose agar
___________ is one of the most common causes of otitis externa along with Otodectes cynotis. This yeast is usually (common in dogs and cats) found in ear canals, peri-anally, and where ever you find moist skin.
- Malassezia pachydermatis (formerly Pityrosporon canis)
- Diagnosis: oval or bottle-shaped, small budding cell in Gram-stained smears of exudate. Can culture on Sabouraud’s agar
5 things to look for in the ear
- Otodectes cynotis
- Otobius megnini - Spinose ear tick
- Bacterial infection
- Malassezia - Yeast infection
- Candida - trombicula larvae - chiggers
________ are superficial funguses known as “Ringworm” by most people.
Classified as to the habitat in which they are most likely to be found:
_________ – confined to human beings
_________ – parasites of animals
_________ – free-living saprophytes in the soil - must affect animals & people.
What are 2 ways to diagnose Ringworm?
What are 3 etiological agents?
What percent of all ringworm in cats is M. canis? What is the percentage in dogs?
- Wood’s Lamp (Wood’s Light) or Direct Microscopy
- Microsporum canis, M. distortum or M. audouinii
- 90%; 70%
Mouth - Protozoan - Family – Mastigophora
List the genus and species
- Trichomonas canistomae
- Toxoplasma gondii – occurs in the mouth but can occur intracellular or extracellular.
Nematodes of the Esophagus and Stomach
1. Family – Spiruroidea
2. Family – Physalopteridae
- 1. Spirocerca lupi – can cause tumors of the esophagus, occasionally the stomach.
- 2. Physaloptera rara - dog/Physaloptera praeputialis -cat
Nematodes of Small Intestines - Roundworms
Family – Ascaridoidea
Family – Ascaridoidea - Toxocara canis (dog); Toxocara cati (cat); Toxascaris leonina (dog and cat)
List 3 etilogical agents
Live in the ________
How are these parasites transmitted?
- Family – Ancylostomatoidea - Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala
- small intestines
- Ingestion; penetration; in-utero; transmammary; parentenic host
- pale mucus membranes, reduced PCV
- Creeping Eruption (CLM) A. braziliense (etiology)
Which parasites produce dark tarry stool? Bright red blood?
- Physaloptera, Ancylostoma
- Strongyloides stercoralis, Isospora, Trichuris
Nematode Small intestines - Family – Rhabditoidea –
Name the Genus/species
What are the 3 forms of this Genus species?
Which form is zoonotic?
- Strongyloides stercoralis
- Pathologic female; Sexual male; Sexual female
- bisexual females penetrate skin, migrate to lungs resulting in broncho-pneumonias which can cause death
Nematode Small intestines - Family –Trichuroidea - Genus/species:
Inhabitant of the ____ of the small intestines of swine, carnivores, and man.
How do dogs get it?
- Trichinella spiralis
- eatting uncooked meat
- albendazole for several days or Ivermectin
Cestodes of the Small Intestines - Family – Taeniidae –
Man, Swine –
- Genus/species: Taenia pisiformis Rabbit – Cysticercus pisiformis
- Genus/species: Taenia hydatigena Ruminants – Cysticercus tenuicollis
- Genus/species: Taenia taeniaeformis -Rodents – Cysticercus fasciolaris
- Genus/species: Echinococcus granulosus Zoonotic Man, Swine – “Hydatid cyst” - Echinococcus granulosus in liver multilocularis in the lungs
Cestodes of the Small Intestines - Genus/species: (include nickname)
- Family –Dipylidiidae - Dipylidium caninum “Cucumber Seed Tape” looks like grain of rice
- Flea/Mite: Cysticercoid
Cestodes of the Small Intestines
- Family - Mesocestidae Mesocestoides spp
Cestodes of the Small Intestines - Genus/species: (dog) & Genus in cat
- Family - Diphyllobothriidae –
- Diphyllobothrium latum in dog
- Spirometra in cat
In the US we only see commonly what 3 cestodes of the small intestine? include intermediate host
- Dipylidium caninum - flea
- Taenia pisiformis - rabbit
- Taenia taeniaeformis – rodent primarily in cat
Trematodes of Small Intestines - Family – Diplostomatidae
Family – Troglotrematidae
- Alaria canis "stomach fluke"
- Nanophytes salmincola
Trematodes of Small Intestine
Family - Acanthocephalan – Genius/species:
Mastigophora: Genus species:
- Oncicola canis
- Isospora canis, I. felis
- Giardia canis (dog)/Giardia bovis (cow)/Giardia ovis (sheep)
Cecum and Colon
Nematode Family - Trichuroidea – Genus/species for dog and cat:
Protozoa Family – Sarcodina – 2 Genus/species:
Protozoa Family – Ciliophora - Genus/species
- Trichuris vulpis (dog) Trichuris campanula & T. serrate (cat)
- Entamoeba histolytica & Entamoeba coli - causes amoebic dysentery
- Balantidium coli
Trematodes of Liver and Pancrease - Family – Opisthorchiidae
Arthropods of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses - Family – Linguatulidae – Genus/species:
Nematodes of the Trachea and Bronchi belonging to
1. Family – Metastrongyloidea – list the Genus/species:
2. Family Trichuroidea - Genus/species:
- Filaroides osleri
- Eucoleus aerophila (fox lungworm)
Nematodes in the Lung Parenchyma –
1. Family – Metastrongyloidea – 2 Genus/species:
2. Family - Filariodidea – Genus/species:
3. Family - Rhabditoidea – Genus/species:
4. Family - Ancylostomatoidea – 3 Genus/species:
4. Family Ascaridoidea – Genus/species:
- 1. Filaroides milksi & Filaroides hirthi
- 2. Dirofilaria immitis
- 3. Strongyloides stercoralis
- 4. Ancylostoma caninum; A. braziliense; Uncinaria stenocephala
- 5. Toxocara canis
Trematodes in the Lung Parenchyma belonging to the Family – Troglotrematidae - Genus/species:
Nematode of the Pulmonary Artery, R. Heart and Vena Cava - Family – Filarioidea – Genus/species:
Microfilarial Nematode of Blood belonging to the Family – Filarioidea – Genus/species:
What is the filarid of blood?
- Dirofilaria immitis
- Acanthocheilonema reconditum
Protozoan of the Blood Family – Sporozoan – Genus/species:
- Babesia canis
- Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3 host tick) "Brown Dog Tick"
Nematode Larvae in Skeletal Muscles belonging to the:
1. Family – Trichuroidea – Genus/species:
2. Hookworm - 3 Genus/species:
3. Roundworm Genus/species: Dog & cat
What is the name of the condition that occurs in ascarids and ancylostoma.
- 1. Trichinella spiralis normal seen in swine.
- 2. Family - Ancylostomatoidea Ancylostoma caninum; A. braziliense; Uncinaria stenocephala
- 3. Family - Ascaridoidea Toxocara canis (dog) Toxocara cati (cat)
- “Larval Leak Syndrome”
Nematode of the Connective Tissue belonging to the:
1. Family – Filaroidea – 2. Genus/species:
Adults can form subcutaneous cysts - Produces “_______________”
2. Class Insecta 2 Genus/species:
3. Family – Calliphoridae – Genus/species:
- 1. Acanthocheilonema reconditum; Dirofilaria immitis; heartworm dermatitis
- 2. Family – Cuterebra – Cuterebra maculata & C. palpebra Produces discharging subcutaneous sinuses.
- 3. Cochliomyia hominivorax (American screwworm) 1st stage larvae “maggots in the fresh wound
Nematode of the Kidney Genus/species:
Family – Dioctophymatoidea – Dioctophyma renale (Giant kidney worm)
Nematode of the Urinary Bladder belonging to the Family – Trichuroidea –
Type of egg:
Found exclusively in the mucosa of the:
- Genus/species: Pearsonema (Eucoleus) plica
- Type of egg: bipolar
- Found exclusively in the mucosa of the: bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.
Nematode of the Eye belonging to the:
2. Genus/species: (dog)
- 1. Family – Filariodea – Dirofilaria immitis - Find in the aqueous humor (front chamber) of eye
- 2. Family – Thelazioidea – Thelazia californiensis - Find in the conjunctival spaces and the lacrimal glands.
Insects of the Skin and Hair belonging to the:
1. Family – Anoplura – Genus/species:
2. Family Mallophaga – 2 Genus/species:
3. Siphonaptera – 2 Genus/species: (dog/cat) 1 Genus/species: (human)
- 1. Linognathus setosus
- 2. Trichodectes canis; Heterodoxus spiniger
- 3. Ctenocephalides felis; C. canis/Pulex irritans – in humans
Arachnids of Skin and Hair belonging to the Suborder – Metastigmata (ticks) and Family – Ixodidae – Genus/species:
2 common vectors associated?
- Rhipicephalus sanguineus
- Dermacentor variabilis; Dermacentor andersoni
Skin Arachnids of the Suborder – Astigmata (mites) without breathing pore belonging to the
1. Family – Sarcoptidae – 2 Genus/species:
2. Psoroptidae – Genus/species:
- 1. Sarcoptes scabiei (dog) in ear margins; Notoedres cati (cat)
- 2. Otodectes cynotis
Skin Arachnids of Suborder – Prostigmata (mites) belonging to the:
1. Genus/species: (nickname)
2. Genus/species: (nickname)
- 1. Demodex canis "Red mite" – no pruritus
- 2. Cheyletiella yasguri – Walking dandruff - on dorsum
Nematode Larvae of the skin belonging to the Family – Rhabditoidea – Genus/species:
Pelodera strongyloides - these do not penetrate the skin but live on the epidermis. These live in the skin.
What is the most common of the protozoans that infect the red blood cells?
What are 2 etiological agents?
What are commonly seen in the blood work?
- Mycoplasma haemofelis (prev Haemobartonella felis) - commonly causes “Feline Infectious Anemia” (FIA)
- Haemobartonella canis - common in Splenectomies
- Howell Jolly Bodies (denatured nucleus) are observed in larger numbers with FIA.
List 6 Blood Cell Parasites found in the Canine
- 1. Babesia canis – trophozoites are larger. 16 max.
- 2. Ehrlichia canis – WBCs and RBCs
- 3. Hepatozoon canis – does occur now in North America and is only other parasite besides Ehrlichia to appear in the wbc.
- 4. Histoplasma capsulatum – a systemic mycotic infection studies in C&F can appear in leukocytes
- 5. Haemobartonella canis now called Mycoplasma hemocanis – the most common
- 6. Trypanosoma cruzi – in humans - Chagas disease
What is the only other parasite besides Ehrlichia to appear in the WBC?
Trypanosoma cruzi is a hemoflagellate of zoonotic importance, known as ______ is also known as __________. It is estimated that 8-11 million in Mexico, Central and South America have this disease. In the US the parasite is thought to be endemic in the southern half of the country. There are many forms of transmission from feces of “______” (like Stomoxys calcitrans) to insect bite wounds; It has an acute phase that can result in death while chronic phase can occur not show signs for 40 years. Signs in humans can include heart failure or intestinal complications.
- Chagas disease
- American trypanosomiasis
- kissing bugs
What is a Blood Cell Parasite found in the cat?
What is a condition that is caused by this parasite?
- Mycoplasma haemofelis
- Feline Infectious Anemia
What are 5 Blood Cell Parasites found in Bovine
- 1. Anaplasmosis – Anaplasma marginale – malignant and common; A. centrale – self-limiting; A. ovis – sheep & goats
- 2. Babesia bigemina – Texas Cattle Fever
- 3. Eperythrozoon wenyoni – mild anemia and not life threatening like often found with anaplasmosis or babesia.
- 4. Theileria mutans – occasional occurrence with anemia
- 5. Trypanosoma theileri – intracellular in occurrence.
What is a Blood Cell Parasite found in Porcine?
Eperythrozoon suis – known as “Epi”, this is a ring like structure located in the erythrocyte (RBC). This ring structure can be seen intra and intercellular