Pulmonary unit

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Pulmonary unit
2014-07-10 18:28:36
AIM stuff

stuff for pulmonary unit
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  1. IPP in vein
    • PO2-40
    • PCO2-47
  2. IPP in alveolus
    • PO2-100
    • PCO2-40
  3. IPP in pulmonary end capillary
    • PO2-100
    • PCO2-40
  4. IPP in sytemic artery
    • PO2-95
    • PCO2-40
  5. connect inhalation to increased heart rate
    inhale, lungs expand, pulm. vascul. expand, blood fills lungs, increases systemic venous return, right heart increase in blood, left heart less blood, less in ststemic arterial, BP decreas, via reflex from aortic arch heart rate increases
  6. function of nasal cavity
    filtering, moistening, and warming air
  7. function of pharynx/larynx
    getting air into the right tube and voice production
  8. function of trachea
    conduction of air, ciliated epithelium, and cartilaginous rings
  9. # of lobes in right lung
  10. # of lobes in the left lung
  11. what is similar to the middle lobe
    the left lingula
  12. oblique fissure of the lungs
    right and left yes
  13. horizontal fissure of the lungs
    right-yes, left-no
  14. what is the helium
    where the bronchioles and pulmonary arteries enter the lungs. and where the pulmonary veins leave
  15. muscles of inspiration
    diaphragm, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, external intercoastals
  16. muscles of exhalation
    abdominal muscle, internal intercostals
  17. function of hemoglobin
    O2 carrying molecules(protein) with 4 subunits
  18. ventilation
    air that reaches the alveoli
  19. perfusion
    the blood that reaches the alveoli
  20. Alveolar pressure
    pressure of air within the alveoli; ossicilates between positive and negative with breathing
  21. Tidal volume
    amount of air that enters or leaves the lung in a single respiratory cycle
  22. Functional residual capacity
    amount of gas in the lungs at the end of a passive expiration
  23. residual volume
    amount of air in the lung after maximal expiration
  24. vital capacity
    maximal volume that can be expired after a maximal inspiration
  25. total lung capacity
    amount of air in the lung after a maximal inspiration
  26. what is someones weight equivalent to
    anatomical dead space (conducting zone)
  27. what is dead space
    regions containg air but without the exchanging of O2 and CO2
  28. what is alveolar dead space
    alveoli containing air but without blood flow in the surrounding capillaries
  29. what is physiological dead space
    anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space
  30. What is total ventilation
    amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per minute
  31. equation for total ventilation
    TV x RR
  32. what is alveolar ventilation
    room air delivered to the respiratory zone per breath
  33. equation for alveolar ventilation
    (TV-dead space)x RR
  34. during inspiration the IPP becomes more what
  35. during expiration the IPP becomes more what
  36. two components of Lung recoil
    tissue and surface tension
  37. how is surface tension created
    fluid lining the alveoli
  38. components of tissue
    collagen and elastin fibers
  39. describe relationship between surface tension and the pressure inside the alveolus
    • P=T/r
    • T-tension
    • r-radius
    • can create atelectasis(alveoli can collapse)
  40. function of surfactant
    • lowers surface tension
    • promotes stability of small alveoli
    • reduces capillary filtration forces
  41. what is respiratory distress syndrome
    • infants-insufficient surfactant¬†
    • adult- acute lung injury
  42. symptoms of RDS
    • Respiratory distress syndrome
    • atelectasis, decreased compliance, pulmonary adema, increased recoil
  43. what is obstructive pulmonary disease
    • increase in airway resistance¬†
    • chronically comes from smoking, bronchitis, coking fires
  44. what is restrictive pulmonary disease
    increase in elastic recoil, restricts lung expansion (fibrosis, RDS, asbestiosis)
  45. PP of gas in inspired air
    its fresh air, anatomical dead space, and small amounts of H2O from the moistening in the nose
  46. what is metabolic rate
    rate a chemical reaction is taking place
  47. how do you use the PaCO2 = met./alveolar vent. equation
    since met. remains constant due to constant production of CO2 you can use PaCO2 to evaluate alveolar vent.
  48. hyperventilation
    inappropriately elevated alveolar ventilation (low PACO2)
  49. hypoventilation
    inappropriately low aveolar ventilation (PACO2 high)
  50. three things that affect PAO2
    atmospheric pressure, fractional concentration of O2, alveolar pressure
  51. things that affect rate of diffusion
    • surface area
    • thickness
    • diffusion constant
    • gradient of the particular gas across the membrane (driving force of diffusion)
  52. what is the concentration of oxygen in the blood dependent on
    concentration of hemoglobin
  53. function of dissolved O2
    create a force (PaO2) to keep oxygen bound to hemoglobin
  54. when dissociation curve shifts to the right
    • Hb loses affinity for O2
    • increase CO2
    • increased H+
    • increased temp. (higher met.)
    • increased 2,3-DPG
    • easy for tissue to extract O2