cardio 2

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Author:
shmvii
ID:
278585
Filename:
cardio 2
Updated:
2014-07-10 18:23:28
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license exam
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license exam
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  1. EKG - how many big squares equals 1 sec
    5 (25 little squares)
  2. 2 ways to calculate HR from an ekg
    • divide 300 by the number of big boxes btwn QRS complexes
    • take the number of peaks in a 6 second strip (30 big boxes) and multiply by ten
  3. which heart block is life threatening?
    what med to give it?
    • 3rd degree
    • atropine
  4. what drops in BP qualify a pt as orthostatic
    • systolic > 20
    • diastolic > 10
  5. pediatric BP norms
    110/60
  6. children 3-5 y/o normal BP
    1115/70
  7. HR norms for adults, kids, newborns
    • 60-100
    • 60-140
    • 90-160 (norm is 127)
  8. MAP
    what is it, how to calculate, norm
    • mean arterial pressure (pressure in large arteries over time) -- dependent on av blood flow and arterial compliance
    • (SBP + 2xDBP)/3
    • norm 70-110mmHg
  9. RR norms for adults, kids, newborns
    • 12-20
    • 20-30
    • 30-40
  10. grade 1 HTN BP
    grade 2
    grade 3
    • 140-159/90-99
    • 160-179/100-109
    • >180/>120
    • (either number, DBP or SPB will get you into that category)
  11. modified Borg dyspnea scale
    • 0 - nothing
    • 5 - severe
    • 10 - max
  12. orthopnea
    inability to breath in reclining or supine pos
  13. crackles/rales -- due to what?
    secretions in lungs
  14. angina scale
    • 1+ light, barely noticeable
    • 4+ most severe pain ever
  15. grading scale for peripheral pulses
    • 0 absent
    • 2+ normal
    • 4+ bounding
  16. diaphoresis
    excess sweating
  17. clubbing of fingernails
    describe
    associated w what?
    • excessive curvature of fingernails w soft tissue enlargement at base of nail
    • chronic O2 deficiency, chronic pulm disease, heart failure
  18. bilat edema is associated w __
    congestive heart failure
  19. which to check first - venous or arterial system?
    venous -- if it's insufficient it can invalidate some arterial tests
  20. percussion test - for what? how?
    • venous valve insufficiency
    • palpate one segment of vein while percussing approx 20 cm higher
    • if it's felt by lower hand, the valves are shite
  21. trendelenburg test / retrograde filling test
    • supine w legs elev 60 degrees
    • tourniquet put on prox thigh
    • stand up
    • see if veins refill in normal pattern within 30 sec
  22. grade scale for intermittent claudication
    • grade I: minimal discomfort or pain
    • grade IV: excruciating, exquisite
  23. echocardiogram assess what?
    internal structures of heart -- size of chambers, wall thickness, ejection fraction, movement of valves, septum, abnormal wall mvmnt
  24. cardiac catheterization  gives info on what?
    anatomy of heart, vessels, ventricular and valve function, abnormal wall mvnts, ejection fraction

    tiny tube goes from brachial or femoral artery thru aorta into blood vessels
  25. central line / swan-ganz catheter -- how? for what?
    catheter inserted thru vessels into R side of heartmeasures central venous pressure, pulmnary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressures
  26. what lab values are raised after MI
    • troponin
    • and also creatine kinase or creatine phosphocinase
  27. polycythemia / erythrocytosis
    increase in RBCs / high hematocrit
  28. erythrocyte sedimentation rate - norms, indicates what?
    • male < 15 mm/hr
    • female < 20 mm/hr
    • if higher, indicates infection, inflammation, RA, SLE, Hodgkins...
  29. Levine's sign
    sign of angina - pt clenches fist over sternum
  30. prinzmetal's angina
    • happens at rest 2/2 vasospasm rather than atherosclerosis
    • responds well to nitroglycerin or calcium channel blocker
  31. congestive heart failure
    aka
    char by
    2/2
    • L sided heart failure
    • pulmonary congestion, edema, low CO
    • insult to L vent from myocardial disease, excessive work load (HTN, valvular disease, congenital defects)
  32. R sided heart failure char by
    edema, higher pulmonary vascular pressures, jugular vein distension
  33. associated symptoms of heart failure
    muscle wasting, myopathies, osteoporosis
  34. compensated heart failure
    heart returns to functional status but w reduced CO and exercise tolerance

    control is achieved thru: SNS stim, LV hypertrophy, anaerobic metabolism, cardiac dilation, arterial vasoconstriction

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