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fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern
talea (repeated rhythm patern) and color (repeating pitch pattern)
used in ars nova motets of Machaut, De Vitry, and DuFay
1175 developed out of Notre Dame organum- descant clausula by adding text to top voice
1250 Franconian- top 2 voices different language (one vernacular), not rhythmic modes
1300 Petronian- more subdivisions- 5's and 6's- 3 separate texts
1300 Isorhythmic- talea and color repeated- bottom voice might be instrument- Machaut, De Vitry and DuFay
1400 Burgundian- one text, not use chant, faux bourdon, upper melody most importnat- Dunstable and DuFay
1450 Netherlancds/Franco-Flemish- 4 voices all equal-elided cadences- musica ficta- imitation- V-I cadence- Ockeghem, Josquin and Obrecht
newly composed polyphonic section for 2+ voices sung in discant style ("note against note") over a cantus firmus
emerged in Notre Dame School (1175-1250) with Leonin and Perotin and later lead to dev. of motet
musical style period following ars nove (late 1300's)
characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity- highly refined, complex, difficult to sing music
centered around Paris, Avignon and northern Spain
Le Roman de Fauvel
The Story of the Fawn-Colored Beast, is a 14th century French poem
arrangement by Philippe de Vitry in the Ars Nova style.
piece serves as an allegorical criticism of church and state, using the metaphor of a donkey becoming the ruler of his master's house.
- donkey's name, which when broken down forms fau-vel, or "veiled lie", also forms an acrostic in which each letter stands for one of the seven deadly sins: Flatterie (Flattery), Avarice
- (Greed), Vilenie (Guile), Vanité (vanity), Envie (Envy), and Lâcheté (Cowardice).
Messe de Nostre Dame
(Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by Guillaume de Machaut
earliest complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer.
single melody shared by 2 voices so one sings while other rests
1200's and 1300's
common in ars antiqua and Notre Dame school and in 1300's in secular vocal music
fixed forms of the trouveres in Northern France
popular in 1200's- Adam de la Halle and Richard
Rondeau, Ballade, Virelai
type of secular vocal music composition, written during the Renaissance and early Baroque, unaccompanied by instruments
- 1530 First Stage: Franco-Flemish after Josquin and Arcadelt
- 1550 Prima Practica: Palestrina and Willaert
- 1560 Transitional: Elizabethan in England, Weelkes
- 1580 Secunda Practica: chromatic, dissonances of Gesualdo and Monteverdi
- 1600 Baroque: monody of Monteverdi and Caccini, grand concerto of Gabrielli (last stage of motet and first of concerto)
described the sweet sounds of English polyphonic music (3rds and 6ths) in 15thC
Dunstable and Walter Frye (influenced Burgundian School of DuFay and Binchois)
- technique of harmonization used by Burgundian School used in early Ren. and late Med. consists of cantus firmus (top voice) and 2 other voices a 4th and 6th
composers: Dufay and Dunstable
sounds like 1st inversion chords
- opening musical idea of a set of movements which serves to unite those movements. It may also be called a motto, and is a frequent device in cyclic
- * setting of ordinary of the mass using unifying melody (cantus firmus)
- * considered the first multi-movement form in western music subject to single organizing principal
- * 1430-1600
- * types: motto mass, cantus firmus, paraphrase and parody mass
pre-existing melody (chant) used as basis of polyphonic composition
900AD- earliest ones in Musica Enchiriadis, after 100 chant in lower voice
polyphonic French secular song
popular in 1530's with composers like Claudin de Sermissy
did not use fixed forms, sounded simpler and more homophonic
German art song usually for solo voice ( and later keyboard)
composers: Isaac, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, Schumann, Wolf
type of through-composed secular vocal composition flourished 1300-1370 (Italian tracento) unrelated to 15th century madrigal
usually 2 or 3 voices
usually consisted of 2 stophes and then ritornello in different meter
composers: Firenzi, Landini and Jacob de Balogna
brief but intense flowering of the musical madrigal in England, mostly from 1588 to 1627
were a cappella, light in style, began as either copies or direct translations of Italian models, 3-6 voices
composers: Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, John Wilbye
simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung by the congregation rather than a professional choir
- rhyming words, in strophic form (with the same melody being used for different verses). Within a verse, most chorales follow the AAB pattern of melody that is known
- as the German Bar form.
- Martin Luther: Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott
- JS Bach- used many as basis of cantatas
a virtuoso piece of music for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring fast-moving, lightly fingered or otherwise virtuosic passages
rapid runs and arpeggios alternating with chordal or fugal parts
flourished in Baroque, especially JS Bach, Buxtehude, and Frescobaldi
- system of tuning which slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation in order to meet other requirements of
- the system.
Just intonation has the problem that it cannot modulate to a different key, so could Pythagorean tuning gave way to meant-tone, well-tempered or equal temperament (dividing all 1/2 steps equally)
a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it.
also, style of highly florid and contrapuntally complex polyphonic music made in France in the late 14th century. This period is now usually referred to as the ars subtilior.
an accompaniment used in almost all genres of music in the Baroque period
group of instruments whose most common combination was harpsichord and cello or organ
usually realized the figured bass
or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note.