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left ventricular end diastolic volume -- the amount of blood in the ventricle after diastole
the force the LV must generate during systole to overcome aortic pressure to open the aortic valve
basic role of ACE inhibitors and angiontesin II receptor blockers
nitrates/nitroglycerin - roles
- decrease angina
- decrease preload
- reduce myocardial O2 demand
aspirin for heart problems does what
- reduces platelet aggregation
- may prevent MIs
hypolipidemic agents - do what? names?
- reduce serum lipid levels
- cholestyramine, colestipol
- simvastatin, lovastatin
heteroptic vs orthotopic heart transplant
- heteroptic: leaving the natural heart and piggybacking the donor heart
- orthotopic: removing and replacing
S&S of LV failure - in the lungs
- dry cough
- paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
- pulmnary rales, wheezing
extra heart sounds in L vs R ventricular failur
- L has S3 and possibly S4,
- R has just S3,
LV vs RV failure, which gives cyanosis, ascites, hepatomegaly, and jugular vein distension?
LV vs RV failure, which gives hypotension, tachycardia, fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, enlarged heart?
- thromgboangiitis obliterans
- chronic inflammatory vascular occlusive disease of small arteries and veins
- distal to proximal in both UE and LE
- symptoms: pain, paeresthesia, cyanotic, cold, decreased temp sensation, fatigue, risk of ulceration and gangrene
elevation of blood glucose and accelerated atheroscleorsis --> neuropathy, ulcers, gangrene, amputation
Wells scale for predicting DVT
- it's a bunch of conditions, and you get points for each one
- score over 3 = high probability of DVT
elargement of nodes w/wo tenderness
adenosine does what
dobutamine does what to heart
persantine does what to heart
mets at rest
beta blockers for a pt with peripheral arterial disease?
may decrease time to claudication and worsen symptoms
how to walk a pt w claudication
walk briefly until they reach a 2 on the scale, rest until pain recedes, repeat, until total of 30-60 min amb
4 drugs that may increase time to claudication in a pt with peripheral artery disease
sympathectomy for peripheral arterial disease?
results in permanent vasodilation, improving blood flow to skin
how much elevation for a limb with venous disease?
>18 cm above heart
types of compression therapy for venous disease
- bandages (elastic, tubular) applied w/i 20 min of rising
- past bandages (Unna boot)
- gauze w zinc oxide, gelatin, or glycerine (4-7 days according to the wound)
- compression stockings (Jobst) >30mmHg
- compression pump 1-2hrs 2x daily
strenuous activities, jogging, ballistic mvmnts w lymphedema?
contraind - can exacerbate the lymphedema
pressure for lymphedema compression?
no higher than 45 mmHg -- higher could cause lymphatic collapse