cardio 3

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  1. preload
    left ventricular end diastolic volume -- the amount of blood in the ventricle after diastole
  2. afterload
    the force the LV must generate during systole to overcome aortic pressure to open the aortic valve
  3. basic role of ACE inhibitors and angiontesin II receptor blockers
    decrease BP
  4. nitrates/nitroglycerin - roles
    • decrease angina
    • vasodilation
    • decrease preload
    • reduce myocardial O2 demand
  5. aspirin for heart problems does what
    • reduces platelet aggregation
    • may prevent MIs
  6. hypolipidemic agents - do what? names?
    • reduce serum lipid levels
    • cholestyramine, colestipol
    • simvastatin, lovastatin
  7. heteroptic vs orthotopic heart transplant
    • heteroptic: leaving the natural heart and piggybacking the donor heart
    • orthotopic: removing and replacing
  8. S&S of LV failure - in the lungs
    • dyspnea
    • dry cough
    • orthopnea
    • paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    • pulmnary rales, wheezing
  9. extra heart sounds in L vs R ventricular failur
    • L has S3 and possibly S4,
    • R has just S3,
  10. LV vs RV failure, which gives cyanosis, ascites, hepatomegaly, and jugular vein distension?
    RV failure
  11. LV vs RV failure, which gives hypotension, tachycardia, fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, enlarged heart?
  12. Buerger's disease
    • thromgboangiitis obliterans
    • chronic inflammatory vascular occlusive disease of small arteries and veins
    • distal to proximal in both UE and LE
    • symptoms: pain, paeresthesia, cyanotic, cold, decreased temp sensation, fatigue, risk of ulceration and gangrene
  13. diabetic angiopathy
    elevation of blood glucose and accelerated atheroscleorsis --> neuropathy, ulcers, gangrene, amputation
  14. Wells scale for predicting DVT
    • it's a bunch of conditions, and you get points for each one
    • score over 3 = high probability of DVT
  15. lymphadenopathy
    elargement of nodes w/wo tenderness
  16. adenosine does what
    increases HR
  17. dobutamine does what to heart
    increases contractility
  18. persantine does what to heart
  19. mets at rest
  20. beta blockers for a pt with peripheral arterial disease?
    may decrease time to claudication and worsen symptoms
  21. how to walk a pt w claudication
    walk briefly until they reach a 2 on the scale, rest until pain recedes, repeat, until total of 30-60 min amb
  22. 4 drugs that may increase time to claudication in a pt with peripheral artery disease
    • aspirin
    • warfarin
    • pntoxifylline
    • dypiridamole
  23. sympathectomy for peripheral arterial disease?
    results in permanent vasodilation, improving blood flow to skin
  24. how much elevation for a limb with venous disease?
    >18 cm above heart
  25. types of compression therapy for venous disease
    • bandages (elastic, tubular) applied w/i 20 min of rising
    • past bandages (Unna boot)
    • gauze w zinc oxide, gelatin, or glycerine (4-7 days according to the wound)
    • compression stockings (Jobst) >30mmHg
    • compression pump 1-2hrs 2x daily
  26. strenuous activities, jogging, ballistic mvmnts w lymphedema?
    contraind - can exacerbate the lymphedema
  27. pressure for lymphedema compression?
    no higher than 45 mmHg -- higher could cause lymphatic collapse
Card Set:
cardio 3
2014-07-11 18:42:10
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