uses T-lymphocytes (which is manufactured in the thymus gland). this system is triggered when disease enters the body.
help T cell- recognizes pathogens that enters the body and sends a message to the killer T cells
Killer T cell- go attach itself to the pathogen and secrete enzymes that kill pathogen
suppressor T- recognizes when pathogen is killed and then sends a message to helper T so tell helper T to stop sending out killer T cells because the pathogen is all killed
How does the humoral immune system work?
uses B- lymphocytes (which is manufactured in the bone marrow throughout the body). B- lymphocytes has receptor sites all around it which are called antibodies that are specific to certain disease pathogens. The pathogens are attached to the B- lymphocytes that have that pathogen specific antibodies. when the pathogens bind to the antibodies of the B-lymphocytes then the B-lymphocytes are trigged to divide into of plasma cells and memory cells. the Plasma cells go and secrete/ manufacture the antibodies that are specific to the pathogen. The memory cells, remember the disease and create a natural immunity to prevent you from getting the disease again and develop a natural immunity.
What are the natural and innate immune responses?
a) external barriers- skin, hair, mucus membranes, nails, tears.
b) Phagocytosis= enzymes that identify the foreign cells in the body and destroy the foreign cells.
d) chemical reactions= intercepts viruses
e) Colostrum= white sticky fluid that is the first substance a newborn has the first couple days of life.
What are the two most common COPD's?
COPD= chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
1) emphysema= destroys surface of the cells (alveoli sac and lost of elasticity) in the lungs which inhibits the ability to take a deep breath and makes it hard to exhale. treatment plan= stop smoking, basal dialater, take antibiotics, exercise but do not over do it, or lung transplant. most common cause is smoking
2) chronic bronchitis= inflammation (scar tissue) in the lining of the bronchial tubes. diagnoses by mucus producing cough most days of the month, 3 months in a year for 2 executive years. most common cause is smoking. treatment= stop smoking, broncho dialater, exercise, antibiotics, or lung transplant
Name infection diseases agents and define it.
Infectious disease agents
1) viruses= nonliving pathogen, smallest pathogen, requires host to replicate, no medicine to kill virus*interferon inhibition"budding- few virus particles released. lysis- host cell membrane explodes and virus particles are releaseddegeneration- host cell degenerates and is killed by virus
2) Bacteria= living and can be treated with antibiotics, divides not replicates
3) rickettsia= are bacterial but is picked up from a insect like a tick- cant be given human to human
4) Fungi= example- ringworm, athletes foot
5) Parasites= living organisms that live off of another living organism and gives nothing back. do not kill human just give them a poorer quality of life. biggest concern is deficiencies. Have the ability to move anywhere in the body and go through any tissue and bone.
Arthropods- ticks, lice, scabies. lice have 3 different bodies= round (head lice), oblong (body lice), pubic (crabs)
6) Chlamydiae= is a bacterial disease- is different from average bacteria because it divides on itself and creates a cluster called a inclusion body. Most known chlamydiae is chlamydia. silvernitrate kills chlamydia.
7) Mycoplasmas= bacterial disease- causes pneunmia. very long incubation stage. can be in incubation stage for up to 2 weeks.
8) Prions- causes mad cow disease (bovine spogyform encephalopathy(BSE)) which moves up into the brain and the prion attaches itself to proteins in the brain and makes the brain look spongy)- new infectious disease agent. has no nucleic acid. its a protein. we do not know how it creates disease in humans. when prions affect humans its
What are Mast cells and why are they important?
are specialized white blood cells that are widely distributed throughout the connective tissues of the body. They are important to inflammatory reaction because they release a chemical that draws blood especially white blood cells to the area of inflammation
What are some immune defect?
when the immune system fails to function. This is caused by disease (example HIV/AIDS), maltrition, and/or, aging.
Name the types of diseases
1) Congenital= any disease present at or near birth
-genetic= taysacks disease
-abnormality and distribution of chromosomes
2) infectious or communicable= anything that can spread to others
3) Inflammatory- caused by injury or disease. causes redness swelling pain.
4) Chronic= long term disease
5) Metabolic= any imbalance with glands or chemical reactions in the body.
6) Neoplastic= new formation (cancer)
list types of immune reaction
inflammatory reaction- a nonspecific response to any agent that causes cell injury. Any word ending in "it is" means inflammation of something.
exudate- the mixture of protein, leukocytes (white blood cells), and debris that forms during the inflammatory process. its proportions of protein and inflammatory cells vary.
-Serous Exudate= that become filled with fluid like in really bad sun burn (little protein in it)
- Purulent Exudate= pus
- Fibrinous Exudate= adhesions (lots of protein) examples of what you get when you get a rug burn.
list triggers for allergies
1) Allergens- category of the most common causes of allergic reactions (Examples- food (peanuts, shellfish, gluten, lactose and tolerant), insects (bees), mold, stuff in the air, animal dander, feathers, soaps, detergent, makeups, medicines
4) irritants- chemicals/ dust like chalk or air pollution, and harsh things that smell strong, cooking fumes
8) chemical irritants- specific to expose to chemicals while working a job
9) medications- penicillin, aspirin
10) emotional anxiety- separate from all these other triggers
get from drinking water out of stream and exits through feet.
problems of asthma
Asthma= disease of the lung, that's characterized with 3 airway problems
- obstruction, inflammation, and hyperesponsivness. 3 common symptoms= short of breathe, coughing, wheezing.
non-infectious disease agents
1) Heredity= predisposal to disease
2) Chemical substances=bad substances= toxins in environment, disturbance to a cell, chemicals (alcohol), Good substances=sunscreen, insulin for diabetics, antioxidants.
3) nutrients= not having enough can cause a bunch of deficiencies
5) lifestyles= 7 lifestyle factors for optimal health= exercise 3 to 4 days for 20-40 minutes, sleep 8-9 hours, well balanced diet, eat breakfast, never smoke, alcohol in moderation, maintain healthy weight
6) environmental factors= air pollution, population, sanitation, water quality, food, temperature, climate
7) socioeconomic status/ demographics= ethnicity, gender, income levels, education
what type of disease is cancer
the fluid that a baby eats at the first few days of life
peanut butter, gluten, lactose and tolerant
a disease in which no morphological abnormalities can be identified even though body functions may be profoundly disturbed.
a disease associated with structural changes
how does a virus replicate
nonliving pathogen, smallest pathogen, requires host to replicate, no medicine to kill virus
budding- few virus particles released
lysis- host cell membrane explodes and virus particles are released
degeneration- host cell degenerates and is killed by virus
what are arthropods
ticks, lice, scabies. lice have 3 different bodies= round (head lice), oblong (body lice), pubic (crabs)
what is the chain of disease
*chain of infection*
- pathogenic agent
- reservoir (place where pathogen can replicate) - portal of exit (any orifice or animal)
- model of transmission (hands)
- portal of entry- (mouth)
- host susceptibility
stage of disease in infectious disease
*stages of disease*
- time length depends on disease in all stages
- incubation= the time of infection to first sign or symptom- (disease can be spread at this age) - prodrome= general signs of disease appear - clinical= peak of disease (can be a day or brief period of time)
- decline= start feeling better (yes or no infectious)
- convalescence= return to health - no more infection
types of parasites
ectoparasistes= outside of the body
parasitesendoparasistes= inside of the body parasites
single celled parasites= protozoa- examples= amebas, malaria, Giardia (backpackers disease)= beavers and deer are common carriers. krepto sperium= pool disease
multi celled parasites= Metazoa (worms) = 1/2 of the earths population lives with worms everyday. doesn't kill the human. all types of worms can manufacture up to a million eggs in a day. loose stool not the norm. water spreads worms the most
good moto to live by
wash your hands all the time
what does a phagocytic cell do?
what is tolerance?
cells have atomic nuclei so cells no which cells are foreign and not.
what does a prion develop into?
Prions- causes mad cow disease (bovine spogyform encephalopathy(BSE)) which moves up into the brain and the prion attaches itself to proteins in the brain and makes the brain look spongy)- new infectious disease agent. has no nucleic acid. its a protein. we do not know how it creates disease in humans. when prions affect humans its called Creutzfeldt- Jacobs disease (CJD)
passive vs active immunity
Active= get actual disease injected into the body
Passive= booster shot (the antibodies for the disease) short term
common causes of death in U.S today?
heart disease, diabetes
think fleshy worm can be to the size of a pinky. 12,000 species of round worms. get roundworm by going from your hand to mouth (fecal oral). pets are more commonly to have roundworm
diameter of a straight pin. only grow to be 3 to 4 cm in length. commonly found in small children. Can stay alive without a host for a couple of days. cause itching and scratching at the anus because of the secretion of eggs from mom worm which causes them to spread.
hook like appendages at the top. gets in through the feet
tail is like a thread. it is more dangerous than any of the other worms because of its tail which weaves in and out of the intestine because of this it can cause on obstruction in the intestine of the connective wall
fecal oral transmission. get it from basically eating poop. different from all the others from its mode of transmission. mostly gotten from eating undercooked pork. they grow really long. makes you really sickly thin.can cause death.