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What are 2 sources of gas for the anesthesia machine?
- 1) wall - pipeline
- 2) tank - cylinder
What agency regulates the use of cylinders?
What does DOT require of medical gas cylinders?
- Specification of cylinder type of material of construction
- Service or working pressure in psi
- Permanently stamped DOT spec number on shoulder of cylinder
What does the FDA regulate in medical gas cylinders?
The gases themselves
What does USP regulate regarding medical gases?
Potency and purity of the gases
What does American National Standards Institute (ANSI) regulate?
- Components of anesthesia machine
- ETT and connections
- Pressure and vacuum
- Gas pressure regulators
What body sets standards to protect health and safety of workers?
NIOSH and OSHA
What is the current anesthesia machine standard?
What is the OSHA Fact Sheet (1991) on WAG mandate?
- Occupational exposure to WAG should be less than
- 2ppm halogenated
- 25ppm nitrous
What agency adopted color coding for medical gas cylinders?
Bureau of standards of the US department of commerce
Can gases be used based on the tank color?
- Prior to use, contents of the cylinder must be verified by the label on the tank
What is the color of oxygen tanks in US? International?
- US - green
- International - white
What is the color of CO2 tanks in US? International?
Gray for both
What is the color for nitrous tanks in the US? International?
Blue for both
What is the color for helium tanks in the US? International?
Brown for both
What is the color for nitrogen tanks in the US? International?
Black for both
What is the color for air tanks in the US? International?
- US - yellow
- International - white and black
What is the difference between pisa and psig?
- Psia is absolute atmospheric pressure
- Psig is gauge pressure calibrated to read 0 at sea level (14.7psia)
What gases are liquefied in compressed cylinder?
- Some of the gas molecules will enter liquid phase at ambient temperature as pressure is applied
What gases are not liquefied in compressed cylinder?
- Will NOT change to liquid state at ordinary ambient temperature no matter what pressure applied
What is the critical temperature for oxygen? Critical pressure?
What is the NFPA requirement for facilities with bulk oxygen storage tanks?
- That a backup gas supply be kept to equal the average daily gas usage
- May be a second, smaller outdoor tank or
- Cylinder gas manifold system at smaller facilities
What is the critical temperature for nitrous? What is the significance?
- >36.5 degrees C
- May be kept liquefied without elaborate refrigeration system
- Above critical temperature, reverts to gas phase
What are the most common cylinder sizes in medical facilities?
E and H
What is the E-cylinder capacity for oxygen? Air? Nitrous? Nitrogen?
- Oxygen - 660L
- Air - 660 L
- Nitrous - 1590 L
- Nitrogen - 660L
What is the E-cylinder maximum pressure for oxygen? Air? Nitrous? Nitrogen?
- Oxygen - 2200psig
- Air - 2200psig
- Nitrous - 745psig
- Nitrogen - 2200psig
How do you determine volume of oxygen in E-cylinder?
- Pressure and volume are proportional
- Full tank is 2200psig and 660L
How do you determine volume of nitrous in E-cylinder?
- Weigh it and compare to weight of empty tank
- When psig begins to decrease, full amount of nitrous in tank is a gas and it is nearly empty
What are 3 characteristics of cylinder safety relief valves?
- 1) frangible - rupture at specific pressure
- 2) fusible plug - melts at specific temperature
- 3) spring-loaded - opens at set high pressure
What is the most fragile part of the cylinder and prone to breakage causing the cylinder to become projectile?
What is the PISS for air? Oxygen? Nitrous?
- Air index 1,5
- Oxygen index 2,5
- Nitrous index 3,5
What safety system prevents accidental rearrangement of gas cylinders?
What type of safety system is the wall pipeline to machine?
Why might an anesthesia machine have 2 sources for oxygen supply?
Separate source to drive bellows
What is the most frequently reported problem with pipeline gases?
Inadequate pipeline pressure
What do you do for inadequate pipeline pressure, pipeline leak, or excessive pipeline pressure?
- Open tank
- Disconnect from wall
- Hand ventilate
What monitor will notify you that there has been a crossing of gases in the pipeline?
Oxygen monitor will read differently than the amount you have set
What type of cylinder is needed for MRI?