Summary of Hormones of the Endocrine System

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  1. Hypothalamus
    • Hormone: releasing and inhibiting factors (peptides)
    • Target/Effect: anterior pituitary/modify activity
  2. Anterior Pituitary
    • Hormone: growth hormone (GH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: increase bone and muscle growth, increase cell turnover rate

    • Hormone: prolactin (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: mammary gland/milk production
  3. Anterior Pituitary tropic
    • Hormone: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: thyroid/increase synthesis and release of thyroid hormone (TH)

    • Hormone: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: increase growth and secretory activity of adrenal cortex
  4. Anterior Pituitary gonadotropic
    • Hormone: luteinizing hormone (LH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: ovary/ovulation, testes/testosterone synthesis

    • Hormone: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: ovary/follicle development, testes/spermatogenesis
  5. Posterior Pituitary
    • Hormone: antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: kidney/water retention

    • Hormone: oxytocin (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: breast/milk letdown, uterus/contraction
  6. Thyroid
    • Hormone: thyroid (TH, thyroxine) (modified amino acid)
    • Target/Effect: child: necessary for physical and mental development; adult: increase metabolic rate and temperature
  7. Thyroid C cells
    • Hormone: calcitonin (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: bone, kidney; lowers serum [Ca2+]
  8. Parathyroids
    • Hormone: parathyroid hormone (PTH) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: bone, kidney, small intestine/raises serum [Ca2+]
  9. Thymus
    • Hormone: thymosin (children only) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: T cell development during childhood
  10. Adrenal medulla
    • Hormone: epinephrine (modified amino acid)
    • Target/Effect: sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  11. Adrenal cortex
    • Hormone: cortisol (glucocorticoid) (steroid)
    • Target/Effect: longer-term stress response; increase blood [glucose]; increase protein catabolism; decrease inflammation and immunity; many other

    • Hormone: aldosterone (mineralcorticoid)
    • Target/Effect: kidney/increase Na+ reabsorption to increase blood pressure

    • Hormone: sex steroids
    • Target/Effect: not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization
  12. Endocrine pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
    • Hormone: insulin (B cells secrete) (peptide) - absent or ineffective in diabetes mellitus
    • Target/Effect: decrease blood [glucose]/increase glycogen and fat storage

    • Hormone: glucagon (alpha cells secrete) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: increase blood [glucose]/decrease glycogen and fat storage

    • Hormone: somatostatin (SS-delta cells secrete) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: inhibits many digestive processes
  13. Testes
    • Hormone: testosterone (steroid)
    • Target/Effect: male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  14. Ovaries/placenta
    • Hormone: estrogen (steroid)
    • Target/Effect: female characteristics, endometrial growth

    • Hormone: progesterone (steroid)
    • Target/Effect: endometrial secretion, pregnancy
  15. Heart
    • Hormone: atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (peptide)
    • Target/Effect: kidney/increase urination to decrease blood pressure
  16. Kidney
    • Hormone: erythropoietin (peptide)
    • Target/Effects: bone marrow/increase red blood cell synthesis
Card Set:
Summary of Hormones of the Endocrine System
2014-07-13 07:40:05

mcat hormones
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