Cellular Physiology 1-3

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Cellular Physiology 1-3
2014-07-21 11:55:04
Cellular Physiology

Cellular Physiology Units 1-3
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  1. How many cells in the human body
    100 trillion
  2. How many types of cells in the human body
    200 types
  3. Do all cells in the human body contain the same DNA?
    YES! (Except sperm and egg, which each have 1/2)
  4. Develop into the entire organism
    Stem Cells
  5. Generate into daughter cells or self renew
    Stem Cells
  6. 4 types of stem cells
    • Totipotent
    • Pluripotent
    • Multipotent
    • Unipotent
  7. Type of stem cell that can develop into anything
  8. Type of cell that has the ability to develop into all cell types but NOT supporting structures
  9. Type of stem cell that is semi-specialized
  10. Type of stem cell that can only make one thing
  11. Type of stem cells found in early embryos, known for it's plasticity (ability to differentiate into all other types of cells)
  12. Intermediate stem cells are called
  13. Proteins that regulate commitment and differentiation/change in gene expression in stem cells
    Transcription factors
  14. Proteins that can turn genes on and off or change gene regulation
    Transcription factors
  15. Prevents stem cells from becoming depleted or overproducing, and is controlled by
    Microenvironment, intrinsic and extrinsic factors (niche)
  16. Cancer cells are typically a product of what type of stem cell division?
    Asymmetric cell division (one copy/one daughter cell)
  17. Components of the ECM
    • Proteins
    • Polysaccharides (long carbohydrates)
  18. Functions of the ECM
    Varies by tissue, but could include giving strength to tendons, filtration in the kidneys, etc.
  19. How much ECM is in epithelial tissue?
    Not much, mostly just the basement membrane (basal lamina)
  20. Function of the basement membrane in epithelial tissue
    Separates epithelial cells form connective tissue
  21. Microenvironment that controls stem cell self-renewal
    Stem cell niche
  22. Types of proteins in the ECM
    • Proteoglycans
    • Fibrous proteins
    • Adhesive proteins
  23. Aggregates of glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) and proteins
  24. Repeating disaccharides of acidic sugar and amino acids
    GAG's (glycosaminoglycans)
  25. Proteoglycans are negative or positive, attract or repulse GAG's, attract or repulse water?
    Highly negative, repulse GAGs in body, attract water
  26. Where are proteoglycans found?
    Mucus and synovial fluid
  27. How many classes (total) are there of proteoglycans?
  28. Most important proteoglycans in the ECM?
    Condroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (glucosamine is the precursor)
  29. Proteoglycan monomers are composed of
    Protein core wtih all other GAG's (except hyaluronic acid) bound to it
  30. A proteoglycan resembles what in shape?
    Bottle brush
  31. Proteoglycan aggregates are composed of what?
    Protein core with hyaluronic acid noncovalently attracted to it
  32. In the ECM, these serve a structural purpose, are made of amino acids, and are long strands (not highly folded)
    Fibrous proteins
  33. What types of fibrous proteins are found in the ECM?
    Collagen and elastin
  34. Most abundant protein in the body
  35. In ECM, it is gel-like and provides support and strength
    Collagen proteins
  36. Collagen synthesis increases or decreases as we age?
  37. Attacks collagen, causing collagen strands to bind together, causing wrinkles
    Free radicals
  38. Rubber-like connective tissue found inlungs, large arteries and elastic ligaments, able to stretch and relax without tearing
  39. Diseases related to problems with fibrous proteins in the ECM
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone)
    • Ehlers Danlos syndrom (fibril collage, super stretchy bodies)
    • Marfan Syndrom (Elastin - long limbs, hyperextensibility)
    • A1-Antitrypsin deficiency (lung)
  40. Two types of adhesive proteins in the ECM
    Fibronectin and laminin glycoproteins
  41. Principle adhesive protein in connective tissue
  42. Prinsiple adhesive protein in epithelial tissues
  43. 5 types of cell junctions (when talking about adhesion)
    Tight, desmosomes (anchoring), adherens, gap, hemidesmosomes
  44. Type of junction that seals epithelial cells together
    Tigh junctions
  45. Type of junction that prevents leakage between cells, important for preventing leaky gut
    Tight junctions
  46. Tpe of cell adhesion juntion that joins actin bundles between cells
    Adherens junction
  47. Type of cell adhesion junction that anchors filaments between cells
  48. Type of cell adhesion junction that allowssmall, water-soluble molecules to pass between cells
    Gap junctions
  49. Type of cell adhesion juction that is mos important in cell-to-cell communication
    Gap junctions
  50. Type of cell adhesionjunction that anchors filaments to basemetn membrane (basal lamina)
  51. Four types of cell adhesion molecules
    • Cadherins
    • Selectins
    • Immunoglobulin Superfamily
    • Integrins
  52. Cell adhesion molecule important for holding cells together tomaintain integrity of tissues
  53. What do cadherins bind to on another cell?
    Other cadherins
  54. A small amount of this type of cell adhesion molecule can be found on the inside of the cell to bind to the cytoskeleton
  55. What is required for cadherin binding to occur?
  56. Cell adhesion molecule responsible for long-term bonding between cells and tissues
    Cadherin bonding (muslce, skin, organ tissue - tissues that have no need to move)
  57. Type of cell adhesion molecule utilized in short term cell-to-cell adhesions
  58. Type of cell adhesion molecule that is important fo rht eimmune system to mediate white blood cell migratio to areas of inflammation
  59. Selectin on one cell binds to what on another cell?
    Carbohydrate containing ligand (lectin)
  60. Selectins are most important when?
    During growth
  61. Cell adhesion molecule tha facilitates adhesion of white blood cells to endothelium of blood vessels during injury
    Immunoglobulin superfamily
  62. What will cell adhesion molecules that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind to?
    Other members of the immunoglobulin family and integrins
  63. Cell-to-cell adhesion molecule named for structures similar to immunoglobulins
    Immunoglobulin superfamily
  64. Cell adhesion molecule found primarily bound to cytoskeleton within a cell
  65. Cell adhesion molecule that modulates cell-to-cell and cell-to-ECM adhesions
  66. Cell adhesion molecule that creates very weak interactions
  67. End of an inegrin molecule that tbinds to members of the immunoglobulin superfamily
  68. At the end of an integrin molecule (cell adhesion molecule), there is a ligand. During cell-to-cell adhesion, what does it bind to? During cell-to-ECM adhesion, waht does it bind to?
    • Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily
    • Arginine-glycine-aspartitc acid residue (RC tripeptide) in collagen and fibronectin
  69. Too much cell adhesion could lead to what?
    Excessive bindign in cells, inflammation and potential for clot formation
  70. Too little cell adhesion could lead to
    Improper functioning of the immune system
  71. Fatty streak formation can be contributed in part to
    Unbalanced cell adhesion
  72. How are adhesion cells involved in cancer?
    • Progression and metastasis¬†
    • E-cadherin is alterered in most epithelial tumors
  73. Genetic defect resultin gin recurrent bacterial infections, survival past 2 years of age is rare
    Leukocyte adesion deficiency
  74. Autoimmune condition causing disruption of cadherin cell-cell adhesion, epidermal cells are not allowed to adhere to one another, leading to blistering
  75. Increased ICAM-1 expression causing excessieve migration of WBC to the respiriatory tract leads to chronic inflammation and airway constriction in this disease
  76. Autoimmune disease where bone cells overexpress adhesion molecules (integrin LFA-1 and ICAM-2); increased leukocyte adesion causes synovial inflammation
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  77. Adhesion molecules as receptors for infectious agents: What protein is a receptor for many rhinoviruses (causes of the common cold)?