Cellular Physiology 1-3
Card Set Information
Cellular Physiology 1-3
Cellular Physiology Units 1-3
How many cells in the human body
How many types of cells in the human body
Do all cells in the human body contain the same DNA?
YES! (Except sperm and egg, which each have 1/2)
Develop into the entire organism
Generate into daughter cells or self renew
4 types of stem cells
Type of stem cell that can develop into anything
Type of cell that has the ability to develop into all cell types but NOT supporting structures
Type of stem cell that is semi-specialized
Type of stem cell that can only make one thing
Type of stem cells found in early embryos, known for it's plasticity (ability to differentiate into all other types of cells)
Intermediate stem cells are called
Proteins that regulate commitment and differentiation/change in gene expression in stem cells
Proteins that can turn genes on and off or change gene regulation
Prevents stem cells from becoming depleted or overproducing, and is controlled by
Microenvironment, intrinsic and extrinsic factors (niche)
Cancer cells are typically a product of what type of stem cell division?
Asymmetric cell division (one copy/one daughter cell)
Components of the ECM
Polysaccharides (long carbohydrates)
Functions of the ECM
Varies by tissue, but could include giving strength to tendons, filtration in the kidneys, etc.
How much ECM is in epithelial tissue?
Not much, mostly just the basement membrane (basal lamina)
Function of the basement membrane in epithelial tissue
Separates epithelial cells form connective tissue
Microenvironment that controls stem cell self-renewal
Stem cell niche
Types of proteins in the ECM
Aggregates of glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) and proteins
Repeating disaccharides of acidic sugar and amino acids
Proteoglycans are negative or positive, attract or repulse GAG's, attract or repulse water?
Highly negative, repulse GAGs in body, attract water
Where are proteoglycans found?
Mucus and synovial fluid
How many classes (total) are there of proteoglycans?
Most important proteoglycans in the ECM?
Condroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (glucosamine is the precursor)
Proteoglycan monomers are composed of
Protein core wtih all other GAG's (except hyaluronic acid) bound to it
A proteoglycan resembles what in shape?
Proteoglycan aggregates are composed of what?
Protein core with hyaluronic acid noncovalently attracted to it
In the ECM, these serve a structural purpose, are made of amino acids, and are long strands (not highly folded)
What types of fibrous proteins are found in the ECM?
Collagen and elastin
Most abundant protein in the body
In ECM, it is gel-like and provides support and strength
Collagen synthesis increases or decreases as we age?
Attacks collagen, causing collagen strands to bind together, causing wrinkles
Rubber-like connective tissue found inlungs, large arteries and elastic ligaments, able to stretch and relax without tearing
Diseases related to problems with fibrous proteins in the ECM
Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone)
Ehlers Danlos syndrom (fibril collage, super stretchy bodies)
Marfan Syndrom (Elastin - long limbs, hyperextensibility)
A1-Antitrypsin deficiency (lung)
Two types of adhesive proteins in the ECM
Fibronectin and laminin glycoproteins
Principle adhesive protein in connective tissue
Prinsiple adhesive protein in epithelial tissues
5 types of cell junctions (when talking about adhesion)
Tight, desmosomes (anchoring), adherens, gap, hemidesmosomes
Type of junction that seals epithelial cells together
Type of junction that prevents leakage between cells, important for preventing leaky gut
Tpe of cell adhesion juntion that joins actin bundles between cells
Type of cell adhesion junction that anchors filaments between cells
Type of cell adhesion junction that allowssmall, water-soluble molecules to pass between cells
Type of cell adhesion juction that is mos important in cell-to-cell communication
Type of cell adhesionjunction that anchors filaments to basemetn membrane (basal lamina)
Four types of cell adhesion molecules
Cell adhesion molecule important for holding cells together tomaintain integrity of tissues
What do cadherins bind to on another cell?
A small amount of this type of cell adhesion molecule can be found on the inside of the cell to bind to the cytoskeleton
What is required for cadherin binding to occur?
Cell adhesion molecule responsible for long-term bonding between cells and tissues
Cadherin bonding (muslce, skin, organ tissue - tissues that have no need to move)
Type of cell adhesion molecule utilized in short term cell-to-cell adhesions
Type of cell adhesion molecule that is important fo rht eimmune system to mediate white blood cell migratio to areas of inflammation
Selectin on one cell binds to what on another cell?
Carbohydrate containing ligand (lectin)
Selectins are most important when?
Cell adhesion molecule tha facilitates adhesion of white blood cells to endothelium of blood vessels during injury
What will cell adhesion molecules that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind to?
Other members of the immunoglobulin family and integrins
Cell-to-cell adhesion molecule named for structures similar to immunoglobulins
Cell adhesion molecule found primarily bound to cytoskeleton within a cell
Cell adhesion molecule that modulates cell-to-cell and cell-to-ECM adhesions
Cell adhesion molecule that creates very weak interactions
End of an inegrin molecule that tbinds to members of the immunoglobulin superfamily
At the end of an integrin molecule (cell adhesion molecule), there is a ligand. During cell-to-cell adhesion, what does it bind to? During cell-to-ECM adhesion, waht does it bind to?
Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily
Arginine-glycine-aspartitc acid residue (RC tripeptide) in collagen and fibronectin
Too much cell adhesion could lead to what?
Excessive bindign in cells, inflammation and potential for clot formation
Too little cell adhesion could lead to
Improper functioning of the immune system
Fatty streak formation can be contributed in part to
Unbalanced cell adhesion
How are adhesion cells involved in cancer?
Progression and metastasis
E-cadherin is alterered in most epithelial tumors
Genetic defect resultin gin recurrent bacterial infections, survival past 2 years of age is rare
Leukocyte adesion deficiency
Autoimmune condition causing disruption of cadherin cell-cell adhesion, epidermal cells are not allowed to adhere to one another, leading to blistering
Increased ICAM-1 expression causing excessieve migration of WBC to the respiriatory tract leads to chronic inflammation and airway constriction in this disease
Autoimmune disease where bone cells overexpress adhesion molecules (integrin LFA-1 and ICAM-2); increased leukocyte adesion causes synovial inflammation
Adhesion molecules as receptors for infectious agents: What protein is a receptor for many rhinoviruses (causes of the common cold)?