Lighter, broader part of the tree's annual ring. Produced in spring and early summer when temperatures are mild and stockpiled winter moisture is readily available.
Darker, thinner part of a tree's inner ring. Produced in mid/late summer, when the upper reaches of the soil get dryer, the sun gets hotter, and growth slows.
During the growing season, pumps nutrients back down to the roots from the photosynthesis happening in the crown. Lighter colored and softer than outside part.
Protective layer of dead cells outside the tree.
Produces inner bark on one side, and new sapwood on the other. living, and 1 cell thick.
In an air dried log, when the bole of the tree shrinks, the bark and inner bark of the tree pop off along the cambium layer. In lumber this Is the contoured part of the piece, the part that looks rounded off.
Pumps nutrients up to the crown from the moist, mineral rich soil. Varies in width depending on the age of the tree.
Was the sapwood when the tree was younger. Now darker and inactive and role has changed to that of structure.
Centre of the tree. Was the original sapling. All of the limbs of the tree, no matter what size, originate from this.
Prized for the warm medium brown of it's heartwood. Produces a relatively narrow band of sapwood, so heartwood yield is high.
Prized for it's creamy light-coloured sapwood with pinkish latewood grain running thru it. Largest of which, with the creamiest sapwood grow in the latitudes that cover s Pennsylvania, Maryland, + North Virginia.
Three first stages of a tree.
Seed, sprout, sapling
Cut piece of firewood.
The cells of the wood.
Holds cellulose together. A natural adhesive. Thermoplastic, and can be steam bent. Moisture + heat make soft, then can harden again with same strength.
Carry nutrients laterally thru cell walls.
The most dimensionally stable cut of wood. Won't cup as it dries. Won't move very much in width as seasons change.
Ideal for drawer sides, table tops, frame rails + stiles -- wherever cross grain movement or cupping could be a problem. Wears more evenly than plainsawn or flatsawn so often used for flooring.
Yields fewer clear, knot free boards than plainsawing and isn't practical for smaller diameter logs, so most commercial sawmills don't do it. A time consuming and fairly wastefull method of log cutting.
Wood is always trying to do what in terms of RH?
Trying to reach EMC.
Water that can be drained from the tree. Is inside the container the cell acts as.
Moisture located in the walls of the tree cells. Permanent, cannot be drained. Referred to when talking about specific gravity.
Special effects / pattern on surface of wood. Reflection if light in grain. Brought out by shine of veneer. Can make surface shimmer.
Effect humidity has on wood.
Expansion, swell as wood absorbs relative humidity in the air and tries to match the EMC.
The condition where the woods cell walls are completely wet, but cavities within the cell walls are dry.
Fiber saturation point
If wood loses moisture from the _____ _____ is shrinks.
Wood remains dimensionally stable if ___________ .
It's moisture content is above the fiber saturation point.
Change in shape of a piece of wood is called ________ .
A board has _______ when it is no longer flat from edge to edge. This always occurs in the _______ ______ of a flatsawn boards annual growth rings.
Cup, opposite direction.
Describes lengthwise curvature of a board -- end to end along its face.
A board has ________ when curvature runs end to end along it's edge.
When all of the boards corners won't lie equally flat it has ________ .
Refers to small splits along the grain. Most often seen at the ends of boards, but can occur at the surface too.
As wood dries it loses moisture along it's length _____ times faster than across it's width. This means end grain dries more rapidly and shrinks faster causing small ruptures called _________ .
Wood shrinks most __________ . That is, in the direction of the annual growth rings. It shrinks about half as much _________ , across the growth rings.
Characteristic of tropical forests. Trees are very ______ and the _______ is very dense. Soil is ______ and most of the _________ is aboveground.
High, canopy, thin, biomass
Characteristics of temperate forest. 4 _______ . Made up of _________ and ________ trees. _________ on the equator than tropics.
seasons, coniferous, deciduous, higher
As a general rule, what percentage extra should you purchase to account for waste when buying wood?
These trees have a lot of similar properties, and can look very similar under stain.
The scale for how stable a trees wood is -- it's inclination to warp.
Generally wood moves __________ as much __________ to _________.
Half, tadially, tangentially
Part of the wood that absorbs the most stain.
Store and distribute nutrients laterally throughout the tree.
Oaks are open _______ / grain. In white oak these are filled with _______.
Maples have _________ pores.
Places that one can find wood that can't be used for boards, but would be useable for veneer.
Root ball, butt, crotch, burl
Wood that has been sawed into veneered pieces and then reassembled the same as it originated.
In Europe trees are cut and then _____________ in to a ____________when they are sold.
When the trunk if a tree is spun around and cut into veneer. The cheapest way of making veneer.
A single piece of veneer is called a ________ .
Type of veneer pattern where tree figure of the same orientation is repeated side by side.
Type of veneer pattern where two pieces mirror each other side by side creating leaf to leaf ________ .
Bottom part of tree trunk
Big ball shaped part of a tree.
Readily taking up and retaining water.
In commercial practice any board with rings _____ - _____ degrees to the surface is considered quartersawn.
The ___________ board moves more in width, the __________ more in thickness.
A tree's rays radiate from the heart like _________ of a wheel.
In quartersawing the sawblade cuts roughly _________ to the _______ . Severed ______ show in the boards surface as flake also called _____ ______ .
Parallel, rays, rays, ray fleck
Hardwood species with very large rays produce the best ________ . 4 examples are _________ .
Fleck, mahogany, white oak, red oak, sycamore.
Sawing "through and through" aka __________ produces few boards near the ________ of the log that contain the ________ .
Flitchsawing, centre, pith
Cut where the rings are less than 60 degrees, but more than 30 degrees to the boards surface. The cut isn't parallel to the rays so the _________ is less pronounced.
When wood reaches EMC it had matched ___________ .
Grain patterns that veneer can come in are _________ .
Flatsawn, quartersawn, rotarysawn
3 main types of manmade materials are ___________ . These are _________ that can be veneered over.
Particleboard, mdf, plywood, substrates
Two (specific) types plywood are ________ + _________ .