Treeanatomy.txt

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Author:
mortthwart
ID:
278886
Filename:
Treeanatomy.txt
Updated:
2014-07-14 22:23:25
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tree
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Description:
tree stuff for woodworkers
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Trees wood"
    • description "The tree is a pump."
    • fileName "Treeanatomy"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Lighter, broader part of the tree's annual ring. Produced in spring and early summer when temperatures are mild and stockpiled winter moisture is readily available.
    • Earlywood
  1. Darker, thinner part of a tree's inner ring. Produced in mid/late summer, when the upper reaches of the soil get dryer, the sun gets hotter, and growth slows.
    Latewood
  2. During the growing season, pumps nutrients back down to the roots from the photosynthesis happening in the crown. Lighter colored and softer than outside part.
    Inner bark
  3. Protective layer of dead cells outside the tree.
    Outer bark
  4. Produces inner bark on one side, and new sapwood on the other. living, and 1 cell thick.
    Cambium (layer)
  5. In an air dried log, when the bole of the tree shrinks, the bark and inner bark of the tree pop off along the cambium layer. In lumber this Is the contoured part of the piece, the part that looks rounded off.
    Wane edge
  6. Pumps nutrients up to the crown from the moist, mineral rich soil. Varies in width depending on the age of the tree.
    Sapwood
  7. Was the sapwood when the tree was younger. Now darker and inactive and role has changed to that of structure.
    Heartwood
  8. Centre of the tree. Was the original sapling. All of the limbs of the tree, no matter what size, originate from this.
    Pith
  9. Prized for the warm medium brown of it's heartwood. Produces a relatively narrow band of sapwood, so heartwood yield is high.
    Beech
  10. Prized for it's creamy light-coloured sapwood with pinkish latewood grain running thru it. Largest of which, with the creamiest sapwood grow in the latitudes that cover s Pennsylvania, Maryland, + North Virginia.
    Maple
  11. Three first stages of a tree.
    Seed, sprout, sapling
  12. Cut piece of firewood.
    Billet
  13. The cells of the wood.
    Cellulose
  14. Holds cellulose together. A natural adhesive. Thermoplastic, and can be steam bent. Moisture + heat make soft, then can harden again with same strength.
    Lignen
  15. Carry nutrients laterally thru cell walls.
    Medullar rays
  16. The most dimensionally stable cut of wood. Won't cup as it dries. Won't move very much in width as seasons change.
    Quartersaw
  17. Ideal for drawer sides, table tops, frame rails + stiles -- wherever cross grain movement or cupping could be a problem. Wears more evenly than plainsawn or flatsawn so often used for flooring.
    Quartersawn
  18. Yields fewer clear, knot free boards than plainsawing and isn't practical for smaller diameter logs, so most commercial sawmills don't do it. A time consuming and fairly wastefull method of log cutting.
    Quartersaw
  19. Wood is always trying to do what in terms of RH?
    Trying to reach EMC.
  20. Water that can be drained from the tree. Is inside the container the cell acts as.
    Free water
  21. Moisture located in the walls of the tree cells. Permanent, cannot be drained. Referred to when talking about specific gravity.
    Bound water
  22. Special effects / pattern on surface of wood. Reflection if light in grain. Brought out by shine of veneer. Can make surface shimmer.
    Figure
  23. Effect humidity has on wood.
    Expansion, swell as wood absorbs relative humidity in the air and tries to match the EMC.
  24. The condition where the woods cell walls are completely wet, but cavities within the cell walls are dry.
    Fiber saturation point
  25. If wood loses moisture from the _____ _____ is shrinks.
    Cell walls
  26. Wood remains dimensionally stable if ___________ .
    It's moisture content is above the fiber saturation point.
  27. Change in shape of a piece of wood is called ________ .
    Warp
  28. A board has _______ when it is no longer flat from edge to edge. This always occurs in the _______ ______ of a flatsawn boards annual growth rings.
    Cup, opposite direction.
  29. Describes lengthwise curvature of a board -- end to end along its face.
    Bow
  30. A board has ________ when curvature runs end to end along it's edge.
    Crook
  31. When all of the boards corners won't lie equally flat it has ________ .
    Twist
  32. Refers to small splits along the grain. Most often seen at the ends of boards, but can occur at the surface too.
    Checking
  33. As wood dries it loses moisture along it's length _____ times faster than across it's width. This means end grain dries more rapidly and shrinks faster causing small ruptures called _________ .
    10, checks
  34. Wood shrinks most __________ . That is, in the direction of the annual growth rings. It shrinks about half as much _________ , across the growth rings.
    Tangentially, radially
  35. Characteristic of tropical forests. Trees are very ______ and the _______ is very dense. Soil is ______ and most of the _________ is aboveground.
    High, canopy, thin, biomass
  36. Characteristics of temperate forest. 4 _______ . Made up of _________ and ________ trees. _________ on the equator than tropics.
    seasons, coniferous, deciduous, higher
  37. As a general rule, what percentage extra should you purchase to account for waste when buying wood?
    30%
  38. These trees have a lot of similar properties, and can look very similar under stain.
    Ash, oak
  39. The scale for how stable a trees wood is -- it's inclination to warp.
    T/R ratio
  40. Generally wood moves __________ as much __________ to _________.
    Half, tadially, tangentially
  41. Part of the wood that absorbs the most stain.
    Earlywood
  42. Store and distribute nutrients laterally throughout the tree.
    Modular rays.
  43. Oaks are open _______ / grain. In white oak these are filled with _______.
    Pore, xylum
  44. Maples have _________ pores.
    Diffuse (diffused?)
  45. Places that one can find wood that can't be used for boards, but would be useable for veneer.
    Root ball, butt, crotch, burl
  46. Wood that has been sawed into veneered pieces and then reassembled the same as it originated.
    Flitch
  47. In Europe trees are cut and then _____________ in to a ____________when they are sold.
    Reassembled, flitch
  48. When the trunk if a tree is spun around and cut into veneer. The cheapest way of making veneer.
    Rotary cut
  49. A single piece of veneer is called a ________ .
    Leaf
  50. Type of veneer pattern where tree figure of the same orientation is repeated side by side.
    Slip matching
  51. Type of veneer pattern where two pieces mirror each other side by side creating leaf to leaf ________ .
    Bookmatching, symmetry
  52. Bottom part of tree trunk
    Butt
  53. Big ball shaped part of a tree.
    Burl
  54. Readily taking up and retaining water.
    Hygroscopic
  55. In commercial practice any board with rings _____ - _____ degrees to the surface is considered quartersawn.
    60-90
  56. The ___________ board moves more in width, the __________ more in thickness.
    Plainsawn, quartersawn
  57. A tree's rays radiate from the heart like _________ of a wheel.
    Spokes
  58. In quartersawing the sawblade cuts roughly _________ to the _______ . Severed ______ show in the boards surface as flake also called _____ ______ .
    Parallel, rays, rays, ray fleck
  59. Hardwood species with very large rays produce the best ________ . 4 examples are _________ .
    Fleck, mahogany, white oak, red oak, sycamore.
  60. Sawing "through and through" aka __________ produces few boards near the ________ of the log that contain the ________ .
    Flitchsawing, centre, pith
  61. Cut where the rings are less than 60 degrees, but more than 30 degrees to the boards surface. The cut isn't parallel to the rays so the _________ is less pronounced.
    Riftsawn, flake
  62. When wood reaches EMC it had matched ___________ .
    Relative humidity
  63. Grain patterns that veneer can come in are _________ .
    Flatsawn, quartersawn, rotarysawn
  64. 3 main types of manmade materials are ___________ . These are _________ that can be veneered over.
    Particleboard, mdf, plywood, substrates
  65. Two (specific) types plywood are ________ + _________ .
    Bendable plywood (wiggle wood), Russian birch plywood (hardwood ply)

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