Psychology 160 WCU Midterm 1

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  1. Structuralism
    Wundt's approach, which focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities
  2. Introspection
    A procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus
  3. Functionalism
    an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does -the functions of mental activity - and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments
  4. Gestalt Psychology
    An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a 'whole' sense rather than on the individual elements of perception
  5. Psychodynamic psychology
    Believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces over which a person has little control
  6. What are the 5 major perspectives?
    • neuroscience
    • psychodynamic perspective 
    • behavioral 
    • cognitive 
    • humanistic scientific
  7. Neuroscience perspective
    the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions
  8. Psychodynamic perspective
    the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control
  9. behavioral perspective
    the approach that suggests that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study
  10. cognitive perspective
    the approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world
  11. Humanistic
    the approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior
  12. theories
    broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest
  13. hypothesis
    a prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows to be tested
  14. 3 main scientific method
    • 1] formulate an explanation 
    • 2] carry out research 
    • 3] communicate the findings
  15. control group, provide example
    a group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment
  16. experimental group, provide example
    any group participating in an experiment that receives treatment
  17. independent variable
    the variable that is manipulated by experimenter
  18. dependent variable
    the variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of hte independent variable
  19. informed consent
    a document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve
  20. placebo
    a false treatment, such as a pill, 'drug', or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient
  21. ethics
    research has the potential to violate the rights of participants, so psychologists are expected to adhere to strict set of ethical guidelines aimed at protecting participants
  22. double blind procedure
    when both participant and experiment are 'blind' to the nature of the drug
  23. Neuron
    nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
  24. cell body, the function?
    • contains the nucleus of a neuron, 
    • function: receive signals and sends signals to other neurons
  25. axon, function
    a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron tat receives messages from other neurons 

    functions: carries messages received by dendrites to other neurons
  26. terminal buttons, function
    small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons 

    function: send messages to other neurons
  27. myelin sheath, function
    a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon 

    function: serves to increase the velocity with which electrical impulses travel thru axons
  28. synapse
    space between 2 neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages
  29. neurotransmitters
    chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron
  30. excitatory message
    a chemical message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon
  31. inhibitory message
    a chemical message that prevents/decreases the likelihood that receiving neuron will fire
  32. reuptake
    the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button
  33. central nervous system (CNS)
    the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
  34. peripheral nervous system
    the part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions; made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body
  35. somatic division
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and communication of information to and from the sense organs
  36. autonomic division
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary movement of the heart, glands, lungs, and other organs
  37. sympathetic division
    • the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat 
    • "fight or flight"
  38. parasympathetic division
    the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended
  39. endocrine system
    a chemical communication network that sends messages thru-out the body via the bloodstream
  40. hormones
    chemicals that circulate thru the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body
  41. pituitary gland
    the major component of the endocrine system, or "master gland," which secrete hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system
  42. cerebellum
    the part of the body that controls bodily balance
  43. reticular formation
    the part of the brain extending from the medulla thru the pons and made up of group of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal
  44. hypothalamus
    a tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior
  45. cerebral cortex
    the "new brain" responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains 4 lobes
  46. 4 lobes of cerebral cortex
    -frontal lobe: Motor area & Broca's area 

    -parietal lobe :somatosensory area, & somatosensory association area 

    -temporal lobe: primary auditory area, wernicke's area, auditory association area

    -occipital lobe: visual area & visual association area
  47. lobes:
    • the 4 major sections of the cerebral cortex
    • frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
  48. motor area
    the part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement
  49. sensory area
    the site in the rain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue
  50. association areas
    one of the major regions of the cerebral cortex; the site of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory, and speech
  51. sensation
    the activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy
  52. perception
    the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain
  53. stimulus
    energy that produces a response in a sense organ
  54. absolute threshold
    the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected
  55. difference threshold (just noticeable difference)
    the smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred
  56. Vision
    this starts with light, physical energy that stimulates the eye
  57. retina
    the part of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of the light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain
  58. rods
    thin, cylindrical receptor cells in the retain that are highly sensitive to light
  59. cones
    light-sensitive receptor cells in retina that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception, particularly in bright light
  60. how light travels
    hits cornea, thru pupil, to the iris, enters lens
  61. blind spot
    area where there are no rods or cones when the optic nerve passes thru
  62. eardrum
    the part of the ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it
  63. cochlea
    a coiled tube in the ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound
  64. outer ear
    sounds hit the pinna and funneled into the auditory canal that leads to the eardrum
  65. taste
    involves receptor cells that respond to 4 basic stimulus qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (and umami)
  66. depth perception
    the ability to view the world in 3 dimensions and to perceive distance
  67. motion parallax
    the change in position of an object on the retina caused by movement of your body relative to the object
  68. linear perspective
    • when railroad tracks seem to come together in distance knows that distance objects appear to be closer together than nearer ones; 
    • allowing 2D image on retina to record the 3D world
  69. Stage 1 sleep
    the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves
  70. stage 2 sleep
    a sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of 'sleep spindles'
  71. stage 3 sleep
    a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater speaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep
  72. stage 4 sleep
    the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation
  73. unconscious wish fulfillment theory
    Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled
  74. dreams-for-survival theory
    the theory suggesting that dreams permit info that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep
  75. activation-synthesis theory
    Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulate memories stored in the brain
  76. hypnosis
    a trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others
  77. psychoactive drugs
    drugs that influence a person's emotions, perceptions, and behavior
  78. stimulants
    drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension
  79. depressants
    drugs that slow down the nervous system
  80. hallucinogen
    a drug that is capable of producing hallucinations, or changes in perceptual process
  81. classical conditioning
    a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to ring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
  82. UCR
    • unconditioned response 
    • a response that is natural and needs no training
  83. CR
    • conditioned response 
    • a response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus
  84. UCS
    • unconditioned stimulus 
    • a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned
  85. CS
    • conditioned stimulus 
    • a once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus
  86. operant conditioning
    learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences
  87. reinforcement
    the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
  88. punishment
    stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again
  89. positive punishment
    • weakens a response thru application of an unpleasant stimulus 
    • ex: spanking child for misbehaving
  90. negative punishment
    consists of the removal of something pleasant
  91. positive reinforcer
    a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in preceding response
  92. negative reinforcer
    an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future
  93. shaping
    the process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
  94. memory
    the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
  95. encoding
    initial recording of the info
  96. storage
    info saved for future use
  97. retrieval
    recovery of stored info
  98. sensory memory
    the initial, momentary storage of info, lasting only an instant
  99. short-term memory
    memory that holds info for 15-25 seconds
  100. long-term memory
    memory that stores info on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
  101. declarative memory
    memory for factual info: names, faces, dates, and the like
  102. procedural memory
    memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball; sometimes referred to an nondeclarative memory
  103. semantic memory
    memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts
  104. episodic memory
    memory for events that occurs in a particular time, place, or context
  105. tip of the tongue phenomenon
    the inability to recall info that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving info from long term memory
  106. priming
    a phenomenon in which exposure to a word/concept (called a prime) later makes it easier to recall related info, even when there is no conscious memory of the word/concept
  107. constructive processes
    processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events
  108. levels of processing theory
    the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
  109. decay
    the loss of info in memory thru its nonuse
  110. interference
    the phenomenon by which info in memory disrupts the recall of other info
  111. thinking
    the manipulation of mental representations of info
  112. concepts
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events or people
  113. prototypes
    typical, highly representative examples of a concept
  114. syllogistic reasoning
    formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions
  115. heuristic
    a thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision, but -unlike algorithms- may sometimes lead to errors
  116. creativity
    the ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways
  117. divergent thinking
    the ability to generate unusual, yet nonetheless appropriate, responses to problems or questions
  118. convergent thinking
    the ability to produce responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic
  119. language
    the communication of info thru  symbols arranged according to systematic rules
  120. babble
    meaningless speechlike sounds made by children from around the age of 3 mos thru 1 yr
  121. intelligence
    the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
  122. g or g factor
    the single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence
  123. Gardner's 8 intelligences
    • 1) musical intelligence 
    • 2) spatial intelligence (artists/architects)
    • 3) bodily kinesthetic intelligence 
    • 4) interpersonal intelligence 
    • 5) logical mathematical intelligence 
    • 6) intrapersonal intelligence (access to own feeling) 
    • 7) linguistic intelligence (use of language) 
    • 8) naturalist intelligence (ID patterns in nature)
  124. scientific method
    the approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest
Card Set:
Psychology 160 WCU Midterm 1
2014-07-17 22:48:52
Midterm psychology
Psych 160
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