World Politics

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World Politics
2014-07-15 03:13:01
politics international
political science
PSC 231 - International Politics
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  1. International Relations
    the relationships among the world's state governments and the connection of those relationships with other actors, with other social relationships, and with geographical and historical influences - pg. 3
  2. Collective Goods Problem
    a(n) (in)tangible good, created by the members of a group, that is available to all group members regardless of their individual contributions; participants can gain by lowering their own contribution to the collective good, yet if too many participants do so, the good cannot be provided - pg. 5
  3. Dominance
    a principle for solving collective goods problems by imposing solutions hierarchially
  4. Reciprocity
    a response in kind to another's actions

    this strategy uses positive forms of leverage to promise rewards and negative forms of leverage to threaten punishment
  5. Identity
    a principle for solving collective goods problems by changing participants' preferences based on their shared sense of belonging to a community
  6. Issue Areas
    distinct spheres of international activity within which policy makers of various states fare conflicts and sometimes achieve cooperation
  7. Conflict and Cooperation
    the types of actions that states take toward each other through time - pg. 11
  8. International Security
    a subfield of international relations that focuses on questions of war and peace
  9. International Political Economy (IPE)
    the study of the politics of trade, monetary, and other economic relations among nations, and their connections to other transnational forces - pg. 12
  10. State
    an inhabited territorial entity controlled by a government that exercises sovereignty on its territory
  11. Nation-States
    states whose populations share a sense of national identity, usually including a language and culture
  12. International System
    the set of relationships among the world's states, structured by certain rules and patterns of interaction - pg. 14
  13. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    the size of a state's total annual economic activity
  14. Non-state Actors
    actors other than state governments that operate either below the level of the state (within states) or across state borders - pg. 15
  15. Intergovernmental Organization (IGO)
    an organization whose members are state governments
  16. Non-governmental Organization (NGO)
    a transnational group or entity that interacts with states, multinational corporations, other NGOs and intergovernmental organizations
  17. Globalization
    the increasing integration of the world in terms of communications, culture, and economics - pg. 19
  18. North-South Gap
    the disparity in resources (income, wealth, power) between the industrialized, relatively rich countries of the West (and the former East) and the poorer countries.
  19. League of Nations
    an organization established after WWI and a forerunner of today's United Nations; it achieved certain humanitarian and other successes; but it was weakened by the absence of U.S. membership and by its own lack of effectiveness in ensuring collective security - pg. 27
  20. Munich Agreement
    a symbol of the failed policy of appeasement, this agreement, signed in 1938, allowed Nazi Germany to occupy a part of Czechoslovakia. Rather than appease German aspirations, it was followed by further German expansions, which triggered WWII - pg. 27
  21. Cold War
    the hostile relations between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, from 1945-1990 ... pg. 31
  22. Containment
    a policy adopted in the late 1940s by which the USA sought to halt the global expansion of Soviet influence on several levels - military, political, ideological, and economic ... pg. 31
  23. Sino-Soviet Split
    a rift in the 1960s between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and China, fueled by China's opposition to Soviet moves toward peaceful coexistence with the United States - pg. 31
  24. Summit Meeting
    a meeting between heads of state, often referring to leaders of great power - pg. 31
  25. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
    a superpower crisis, sparked by the Soviet Union's installation of medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba, that marks the moment when the United States and the Soviet Union came closest to nuclear war - pg. 32
  26. Proxy Wars
    wars in the third world - often civil wars - in which the USA and the Soviet Union jockeyed for position by supplying and advising opposing factions ... pg. 32
  27. Realism
    a broad intellectual tradition that explains international relations mainly in terms of power - pg. 43
  28. Idealism
    an approach that emphasizes international law, morality, and international organization, rather than power alone, as key influences on international relations - pg. 43
  29. Power
    the ability or potential to influence others' behavior, as measured by the possession of certain tangible and intangible characteristics - pg. 45
  30. Geopolitics
    the use of geography as an element of power, and the ideas about it held by political leaders and scholars - pg. 49
  31. Anarchy
    in IR theory, a term that implies not complete chaos but the lack of a central government that can enforce rules - pg. 50
  32. Norms
    the shared expectations about what behavior is considered proper
  33. Sovereignty
    a state's right, at least in principle, to do whatever it wants within its own territory - pg. 50

    *most important international norm
  34. Security Dilemma
    a situation in which a states' actions to ensure their own security (i.e. deploying more military forces) threaten the security of other states - pg. 51
  35. Balance of Power
    refers to the general concept of one or more states' power being used to balance that of another state or group of states - pg. 52
  36. Great Powers
    the half-dozen or so most powerful states ... pg. 54
  37. Middle Powers
    states that somewhat rank below the great powers in terms of their influence on world affairs - pg. 55
  38. Neorealism
    a 1990s adaptation of realism. It explains patterns of international events in terms of the system's structure, especially the international distribution of power - pg. 56
  39. Multipolar System
    an international system with typically 5 or 6 centers of power that are not grouped into alliances - pg. 56
  40. Power Transition Theory
    a theory that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy, when a rising power is surpassing/threatening to surpass the most powerful state - pg. 57
  41. Hegemony
    one state's holding of a preponderance of power in the international system, so that it can single-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted - pg. 57
  42. Hegemonic Stability Theory
    holds that hegemony provides some order similar to a central government in the international system: reducing anarchy, deterring aggression, promoting free trade, and providing a hard currency that can be used as a world standard - pg. 58
  43. Alliance Cohesion
    the ease with which the members hold together an alliance - pg. 64
  44. Burden Sharing
    the distribution of the costs of an alliance; and or the arising conflicts over said distribution - pg. 64
  45. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    a U.S.-led military alliance, formed in 1949 with mainly W. European members, to oppose and deter Soviet power in Europe - pg. 65
  46. Warsaw Pact
    a Soviet-led E. European military alliance, founded in 1955 and disbanded in 1991. It opposed the NATO alliance.
  47. U.S.-Japanese Security Treaty
    a bilateral alliance between the United Stated and Japan, created in 1951 against the potential Soviet threat to Japan. The U.S. maintains troops in Japan and is committed to defend Japan if attacked, and Japan pays the U.S. to offset about 1/2 the cost of maintaining the troops - pg. 67
  48. Non-aligned Movement
    a movement of third world states, led by India and Yugoslavia, that attempted to stand apart from the U.S.-Soviet rivalry during the Cold War
  49. Deterrence
    the threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action (especially against one's own state or allies)
  50. Compellence
    the threat of force to make another actor take some action
  51. Arms Race
    a reciprocal process in which two or more states build up military capabilities in response to each other
  52. Rational Actors
    actors conceived of as single entities that can "think" about their actions coherently, make choices, identify their interests, and rank the interests in terms of priority
  53. National Interest
    the interests of a state overall (as opposed to particular parties or factions within the state)
  54. Cost-Benefit Analysis
    a calculation of the costs incurred by a possible action and the benefit it is likely to bring
  55. Game Theory
    a branch of math concerned with predicting bargaining outcomes.
  56. Zero-Sum Games
    situations in which one actor's gain is by definition equal to the other's loss
  57. Prisoner's Dilemma (PD)
    a situation modeled by game theory in which rational actors pursuing their individual interests all achieve worse outcomes than they could have by working together - pg. 75
  58. Interdependence
  59. Neoliberal
  60. International Regime
  61. Collective Security
  62. Democratic Peace
  63. Constructivism
  64. Postmodernism
  65. Subtext
  66. Economic Classes
  67. Marxism
  68. Conflict Resolution
  69. Mediation
  70. Militarism
  71. Positive Peace
  72. World Government
  73. Peace Movements
  74. Difference Feminism
  75. Liberal Feminism
  76. Postmodern Feminism
  77. Gender Gap
  78. Rational Model
  79. Organizational Process Model
  80. Government Bargaining Model
  81. Misperceptions, Selective Perceptions
  82. Information Screens
  83. Optimizing
  84. Satisficing
  85. Prospect Theory
  86. Groupthink
  87. Interest Groups
  88. Military-Industrial Complex
  89. Public Opinion
  90. "Rally 'round the flag" Syndrome
  91. Diversionary Foreign Policy
  92. Foreign Policy Process
  93. International Norms
  94. International Organizations (IOs)
  95. UN Charter
  96. UN General Assembly
  97. UN Security Coucil
  98. UN Secretariat
  99. Peace-building
  100. UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
  101. World Health Organization (WHO)
  102. World Court (International Court of Justice)
  103. Immigration Law
  104. Diplomatic Recognition
  105. Diplomatic Immunity
  106. Just Wars
  107. Human Rights
  108. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
  109. Amnesty International
  110. Responsibility to Prevent (R2P)
  111. War Crimes
  112. Crimes Against Humanity
  113. International Criminal Court (ICC)
  114. Prisoners of War (POW)
  115. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
  116. Hegemonic War
  117. Total War
  118. Limited War
  119. Civil War
  120. Guerrilla War
  121. Truth Commissions
  122. Conflict
  123. Cycle Theories
  124. Nationalism
  125. Ethnic Groups
  126. Ethnocentrism
  127. Dehumanization
  128. Genocide
  129. Secular (state)
  130. Islam/Muslims
  131. Islamist
  132. Irredentism
  133. Ethnic Cleansing
  134. Territorial Waters
  135. Airspace