Pathophysiology- Respiratory Objectives

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  1. Compliance
    • lungs ability of expanding under certain pressure
    • Compliance ↑ very easy to inflate
    • Compliance ↓ hard to inflate
    • Factors:
    • 1. lung tissue 
    • 2. alveolar surface tension
    • 3. ↓ compliance= more work
    • 4. energy expenditure

    • 1. Lung Tissue-- elastic forces, dependent om surface tension of alveolar walls
    • 2. Alveolar Surface Tension--surfactant(typeII alveolar epithelial tissue, phospholipids, proteins, and ions (especially Ca+)  ↓Surfactant ↓Compliance
  2. V/Q balance/imbalance (Ventilation/Perfusion Imbalance)
  3. Hypoxic v. Hypercapnic Respiratory Drives
  4. Goblet Cells
  5. Forced Expiratory volume in 1 second-FEV1
  6. Residual Volume
    • amount of air remaining in the lungs (alveoli) after a maximal exhalation
    • 1,200 mL
  7. Leukotrienes
  8. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
  9. Shunting
  10. Clubbing
  11. Hemoptysis
  12. Elasticity
  13. Surfactant
  14. Actinus
  15. Airway Resistance
  16. Tidal Volume
    • volume of exhaled air after a normal respiration
    • 500 mL
  17. Vital Capacity
    • total amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a maximal inhalation
    • (the largest amount of air that can enter and leave the lungs during a forced respiration)
    • 4,500 - 5,000 mL
  18. Histamine
  19. Review the normal role of the respiratory system: primary v. secondary respiratory centers, normal blood gas values, and role of the respiratory system in the maintenance of acid/base balance regulation
  20. Explain the pathophysiology of asthma: causes, major pathologic feature, pathophysiological changes within the respiratory tract, acid/base imbalances, respiratory phase initially affeted, V/Q imbalance, clinical manifestations, and changes in airway resistance and compliance.
  21. Explain the pathophysiology of emphysema: causes, changes in elasticity/airway resistance and compliance, V/Q imbalance, acid/base imbalance, and change in respiratory drive
  22. Explain pathophysiology of Chronic Bronchitis: causes, changes in airway resistance and compliance, V/Q imbalance, acid/base imbalance, and change in respiratory drive
  23. Explain pathophysiology of Pneumonia: causes, bacterial v. viral, clinical manifestations. List the most common causative micro-organisms. Discuss pathological lung tissue changes in airway resistance, compliance, V/Q and acid/base imbalance
  24. Explain pathophysiology of Tuberculosis: causes, clinical manifestations, role of immune system
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Pathophysiology- Respiratory Objectives
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