Chapter 14 Blood

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ginarjones
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278985
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Chapter 14 Blood
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2014-07-15 19:12:27
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blood ICC Davis Anatomy Physiology2
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A&P 2
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A&P 2 Chapter 14: Blood
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  1. A connective tissue with cells suspended in a liquid intercellular material which links the body's internal and external environments.
    Blood
  2. What does blood transport?
    oxygen, carbon dioxide, enzymes, hormones, nutrients, and wastes
  3. What does blood regulate?
    pH, temperature, and water content
  4. How does blood protect?
    prevents body fluid loss through clotting mechanisms, combats microbes and toxins
  5. Volume of blood in the human body is usually 8% of body weight for _____ liters.
    5
  6. What percent of your blood is "solid"?
    45%
  7. What percent of your blood is "liquid"?
    55%
  8. Comprise 99% of blood cells.
    Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
  9. Volume % of rbc in a sample of blood.
    hematocrit
  10. Comprise 0.1% of blood cells.
    White Blood Cells (leukocytes)
  11. Cell fragments.
    Platelets (thrombocytes)
  12. Portion of blood that is WBC and platelets.
    Buffy Coat
  13. Water, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes make up this.
    Plasma
  14. All blood cells originate here.
    Red Bone Marrow
  15. Red blood cells are created in the red bone marrow from what?
    hematopoietic stem cells
  16. What do stem cells respond to during rbc formation in order to colonize?
    colony stimulating factors
  17. Red Blood Cells
    erythrocytes
  18. Tiny cells shaped like a biconcave disk which contains hemoglobin and has a nucleus when immature but loses it as it matures.
    Erythrocytes
  19. Red blood cell count in males.
    4.6 - 6.2 million per mm3 or uL
  20. Red blood cell count in females.
    4.2 - 5.4 million per mm3 or uL
  21. Red blood cell count in children.
    4.5 - 5.1 million per mm3 or uL
  22. How long do RBC live?
    about 120 days
  23. Become macrophages in the liver and spleen.
    RBC
  24. What do macrophages in the liver and spleen do?
    phagocytize damaged rbc
  25. Breaks down into heme and globin.
    Hemoglobin
  26. What does hemoglobin break down into?
    heme and globin
  27. Decomposes into iron and biliverdin.
    Heme
  28. What does heme decompose into?
    Iron and biliverdin
  29. Recycled into new hemoglobin.
    Iron
  30. Some biliverdin is converted into what?
    Bilirubin
  31. Green Pigment
    Biliverdin
  32. Orange Pigment
    Bilirubin
  33. Biliverdin and Bilirubin are excreted in the bile as what?
    Bile pigments
  34. The production of blood cells.
    Hematopoiesis
  35. The production of RBC.
    erythropoiesis
  36. First produced in the yolk sac, liver, and spleen.
    RBC
  37. After birth, where are RBC produced?
    bone marrow
  38. What produces erythrocytes?
    Erythroblasts
  39. Produced in the kidneys and liver, in response to low oxygen, this hormone controls rbc.
    Erythropoietin
  40. Dietary factors needed for rbc production.
    vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron
  41. Why is vitamin B12 and folic acid needed for rbc production?
    DNA synthesis
  42. Why is iron needed for rbc production?
    for hemoglobin
  43. A deficiency of rbc or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin.
    condition anemia
  44. White Blood Cells
    Leukocytes
  45. Nucleated blood cells which defend the body by phagocytosis and antibody production. 0.1% of blood cells
    Leukocytes
  46. White blood cells move through cell walls of capillaries into interstitial fluid by this process.
    diapedesis
  47. Have granular cytoplasm and short life spans (12 hours)
    granulocytes
  48. Lack cytoplasmic granules and have life spans ranging from weeks to years.
    agranulocytes
  49. The most common type of WBC (54-62%)
    Neutrophil
  50. WBC with a 2-5 lobed nucleus , these are the first to arrive at an infection site, destroying bacteria, fungi, and some viruses.
    Neutrophil
  51. Makes up 1-3% of WBC
    Eosinophil
  52. With a bi-lobed nucleus, these WBCs defend against parasitic worm infections.
    Eosinophil
  53. Make up less than 1% of WBC.
    Basophil
  54. These WBC have a bi-lobed nucleus that can be obscured by granules and secretes histamine which promotes inflammation and heparin which inhibits blood clotting.
    Basophil
  55. The largest of all WBC, make up 3-9% of WBC, and are formed by the red bone marrow.
    Monocytes
  56. With a kidney shaped nucleus, these WBC live for several weeks or even more, leaving the blood stream to become macrophages that phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and debris.
    Monocytes
  57. Slightly larger than RBC, these WBC make up 25-33% of all WBC.
    Lymphocytes
  58. The nucleus of this WBC covers most of the cell and may live for years. It plays a role in immunity.
    Lymphocytes
  59. Directly attack microorganisms, tumors, and transplanted cells
    T-cells
  60. Produce antibody proteins that attack foreign molecules.
    B-cells
  61. What is a normal WBC count?
    5,000 - 10,000per mm3
  62. WBC count exceeds 10,000.
    Leukocytosis
  63. WBC drops below 5,000.
    Leukopenia
  64. Caused by acute infection (appendicitis), emotional upsets, loss of body fluid, vigorous exercise.
    Leukocytosis
  65. Caused by typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, polio, anemia, lead-arsenic-mercury poisoning.
    Leukopenia
  66. Platelets
    Thrombocytes
  67. These have no nucleus, are about half the size of RBC, 130,000 -360,000 per mm3, and live about 10 days.
    Thrombocytes
  68. Close breaks in vessels by initiating blood clots.
    Thrombocytes
  69. Release serotonin which contracts smooth muscle in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
    Thrombocytes
  70. Contracts smooth musclee in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
    Serotonin
  71. Functions to transport nutrients, gases, and vitamins, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, and helps maintain favorable pH.
    Blood Plasma
  72. Remain in blood and interstitial fluid, NOT used as an energy source, and helps to control blood volume/pressure.
    Plasma proteins
  73. 3 main plasma proteins
    Albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
  74. 60% of plasma proteins, smallest size, helps maintain the osmotic pressure of blood so water stays in capillaries despite blood pressure.
    Albumin
  75. 36% of plasma proteins, it transports lipids and fat-soluable vitamins. The antibodies of immunity.
    globulin
  76. 4% of plasma proteins, the largest, functions in clotting blood.
    Fibrinogen
  77. When plasma proteins fall, tissues swell as water moves out of capillaries, due to diet or impaired liver.
    Edema
  78. The stoppage of bleeding
    Hemostasis
  79. The three hemostatic mechanisms that control blood loss.
    • Blood vessel spasm
    • platelet plug formation
    • blood coagulation
  80. Cutting/breaking a small vessel stimulates smooth muscle to contract (vasospasms) which reduces blood loss. The effects result from direct stimulation of the vessel wall and pain receptors and may last for 30 minutes. A platelet plug forms.
    blood vessel spasm
  81. During blood vessel spasms, this is released by the platelets to help vasoconstriction.
    serotonin
  82. Platelets get "hung up" on the collagen fibers in connective tissue that is exposed from a broken vessel, to help stop bleeding.
    Platelet plug formation
  83. The most effective hemostatic mechanism results in the formation of a blood clot which can occur extrinsically due to the release of biochemicals from broken vessels and damaged tissues and can occur intrinsically when blood contacts a foreign substance.
    Blood Coagulation
  84. What triggers an extrensic clotting mechanism?
    Tissue damage
  85. Extrensic Clotting Mechanism leads to the release of what from platelets?
    prothrombin activator
  86. In the presence of Ca, prothrombin changes into what?
    thrombin
  87. Thrombin changes soluble _____ into insoluble _____.
    • fibrinogen
    • fibrin
  88. What do platelets and blood cells stick to to form a clot?
    fibrin meshwork
  89. Explain the positive feedback Extrensic Clotting Mechanism.
    As a clot begins to form, it promotes more clotting. Thrombin release causes more prothrombin to form and thus more thrombin.
  90. What type of mechanism is activated when blood comes in contact with a foreign surface like connective tissue, activating the Hageman factor?
    Intrinsic clotting mechanism
  91. Explain the Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism.
    • Blood comes into contact with a foreign surface.
    • Reactions involving clotting factors and Ca occurs.
    • Production of prothrombin.
    • Changes into thrombin.
    • Thrombin changes fibrinogen into fibrin
    • Blood clot forms
  92. The fluid part of coagulated blood.
    Serum
  93. Plasma, minus fibrinogen and most other clotting factors.
    Serum
  94. A blood clot forming abnormally in a vessel.
    Thrombus
  95. A clot or fragment of a clot that has moved in a blood vessel.
    Embolus
  96. Obstruction of a blood vessel caused by a blood clot carried by the blood.
    Embolism
  97. Accumulations of fatty deposits change arterial linings, sometimes initiating inappropriate clotting. Most common cause of thrombosis.
    atherosclerosis
  98. ____ of blood vessel prevents activation of intrinsic blood clotting mechanism.
    smooth lining
  99. Inhibits platelets from sticking to the blood vessel wall.
    prostacyclin
  100. How do fibrin threads prevent coagulation?
    absorb thrombin so it doesn't spread
  101. In the plasma, this blocks fibrin production, preventing coagulation
    antithrombin
  102. To prevent coagulation, ____ from mast cells and basophils in connective tissue interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator.
    heparin
  103. The first exposure to Rh+ causes Rh- person to produce what?
    anti-Rh antibodies
  104. A second exposure of Rh+ by an Rh- person causes RBC to do what?
    agglutinate

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