Chapter 14 Blood

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Chapter 14 Blood
2014-07-15 19:12:27
blood ICC Davis Anatomy Physiology2
A&P 2
A&P 2 Chapter 14: Blood
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  1. A connective tissue with cells suspended in a liquid intercellular material which links the body's internal and external environments.
  2. What does blood transport?
    oxygen, carbon dioxide, enzymes, hormones, nutrients, and wastes
  3. What does blood regulate?
    pH, temperature, and water content
  4. How does blood protect?
    prevents body fluid loss through clotting mechanisms, combats microbes and toxins
  5. Volume of blood in the human body is usually 8% of body weight for _____ liters.
  6. What percent of your blood is "solid"?
  7. What percent of your blood is "liquid"?
  8. Comprise 99% of blood cells.
    Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
  9. Volume % of rbc in a sample of blood.
  10. Comprise 0.1% of blood cells.
    White Blood Cells (leukocytes)
  11. Cell fragments.
    Platelets (thrombocytes)
  12. Portion of blood that is WBC and platelets.
    Buffy Coat
  13. Water, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes make up this.
  14. All blood cells originate here.
    Red Bone Marrow
  15. Red blood cells are created in the red bone marrow from what?
    hematopoietic stem cells
  16. What do stem cells respond to during rbc formation in order to colonize?
    colony stimulating factors
  17. Red Blood Cells
  18. Tiny cells shaped like a biconcave disk which contains hemoglobin and has a nucleus when immature but loses it as it matures.
  19. Red blood cell count in males.
    4.6 - 6.2 million per mm3 or uL
  20. Red blood cell count in females.
    4.2 - 5.4 million per mm3 or uL
  21. Red blood cell count in children.
    4.5 - 5.1 million per mm3 or uL
  22. How long do RBC live?
    about 120 days
  23. Become macrophages in the liver and spleen.
  24. What do macrophages in the liver and spleen do?
    phagocytize damaged rbc
  25. Breaks down into heme and globin.
  26. What does hemoglobin break down into?
    heme and globin
  27. Decomposes into iron and biliverdin.
  28. What does heme decompose into?
    Iron and biliverdin
  29. Recycled into new hemoglobin.
  30. Some biliverdin is converted into what?
  31. Green Pigment
  32. Orange Pigment
  33. Biliverdin and Bilirubin are excreted in the bile as what?
    Bile pigments
  34. The production of blood cells.
  35. The production of RBC.
  36. First produced in the yolk sac, liver, and spleen.
  37. After birth, where are RBC produced?
    bone marrow
  38. What produces erythrocytes?
  39. Produced in the kidneys and liver, in response to low oxygen, this hormone controls rbc.
  40. Dietary factors needed for rbc production.
    vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron
  41. Why is vitamin B12 and folic acid needed for rbc production?
    DNA synthesis
  42. Why is iron needed for rbc production?
    for hemoglobin
  43. A deficiency of rbc or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin.
    condition anemia
  44. White Blood Cells
  45. Nucleated blood cells which defend the body by phagocytosis and antibody production. 0.1% of blood cells
  46. White blood cells move through cell walls of capillaries into interstitial fluid by this process.
  47. Have granular cytoplasm and short life spans (12 hours)
  48. Lack cytoplasmic granules and have life spans ranging from weeks to years.
  49. The most common type of WBC (54-62%)
  50. WBC with a 2-5 lobed nucleus , these are the first to arrive at an infection site, destroying bacteria, fungi, and some viruses.
  51. Makes up 1-3% of WBC
  52. With a bi-lobed nucleus, these WBCs defend against parasitic worm infections.
  53. Make up less than 1% of WBC.
  54. These WBC have a bi-lobed nucleus that can be obscured by granules and secretes histamine which promotes inflammation and heparin which inhibits blood clotting.
  55. The largest of all WBC, make up 3-9% of WBC, and are formed by the red bone marrow.
  56. With a kidney shaped nucleus, these WBC live for several weeks or even more, leaving the blood stream to become macrophages that phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and debris.
  57. Slightly larger than RBC, these WBC make up 25-33% of all WBC.
  58. The nucleus of this WBC covers most of the cell and may live for years. It plays a role in immunity.
  59. Directly attack microorganisms, tumors, and transplanted cells
  60. Produce antibody proteins that attack foreign molecules.
  61. What is a normal WBC count?
    5,000 - 10,000per mm3
  62. WBC count exceeds 10,000.
  63. WBC drops below 5,000.
  64. Caused by acute infection (appendicitis), emotional upsets, loss of body fluid, vigorous exercise.
  65. Caused by typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, polio, anemia, lead-arsenic-mercury poisoning.
  66. Platelets
  67. These have no nucleus, are about half the size of RBC, 130,000 -360,000 per mm3, and live about 10 days.
  68. Close breaks in vessels by initiating blood clots.
  69. Release serotonin which contracts smooth muscle in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
  70. Contracts smooth musclee in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
  71. Functions to transport nutrients, gases, and vitamins, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, and helps maintain favorable pH.
    Blood Plasma
  72. Remain in blood and interstitial fluid, NOT used as an energy source, and helps to control blood volume/pressure.
    Plasma proteins
  73. 3 main plasma proteins
    Albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
  74. 60% of plasma proteins, smallest size, helps maintain the osmotic pressure of blood so water stays in capillaries despite blood pressure.
  75. 36% of plasma proteins, it transports lipids and fat-soluable vitamins. The antibodies of immunity.
  76. 4% of plasma proteins, the largest, functions in clotting blood.
  77. When plasma proteins fall, tissues swell as water moves out of capillaries, due to diet or impaired liver.
  78. The stoppage of bleeding
  79. The three hemostatic mechanisms that control blood loss.
    • Blood vessel spasm
    • platelet plug formation
    • blood coagulation
  80. Cutting/breaking a small vessel stimulates smooth muscle to contract (vasospasms) which reduces blood loss. The effects result from direct stimulation of the vessel wall and pain receptors and may last for 30 minutes. A platelet plug forms.
    blood vessel spasm
  81. During blood vessel spasms, this is released by the platelets to help vasoconstriction.
  82. Platelets get "hung up" on the collagen fibers in connective tissue that is exposed from a broken vessel, to help stop bleeding.
    Platelet plug formation
  83. The most effective hemostatic mechanism results in the formation of a blood clot which can occur extrinsically due to the release of biochemicals from broken vessels and damaged tissues and can occur intrinsically when blood contacts a foreign substance.
    Blood Coagulation
  84. What triggers an extrensic clotting mechanism?
    Tissue damage
  85. Extrensic Clotting Mechanism leads to the release of what from platelets?
    prothrombin activator
  86. In the presence of Ca, prothrombin changes into what?
  87. Thrombin changes soluble _____ into insoluble _____.
    • fibrinogen
    • fibrin
  88. What do platelets and blood cells stick to to form a clot?
    fibrin meshwork
  89. Explain the positive feedback Extrensic Clotting Mechanism.
    As a clot begins to form, it promotes more clotting. Thrombin release causes more prothrombin to form and thus more thrombin.
  90. What type of mechanism is activated when blood comes in contact with a foreign surface like connective tissue, activating the Hageman factor?
    Intrinsic clotting mechanism
  91. Explain the Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism.
    • Blood comes into contact with a foreign surface.
    • Reactions involving clotting factors and Ca occurs.
    • Production of prothrombin.
    • Changes into thrombin.
    • Thrombin changes fibrinogen into fibrin
    • Blood clot forms
  92. The fluid part of coagulated blood.
  93. Plasma, minus fibrinogen and most other clotting factors.
  94. A blood clot forming abnormally in a vessel.
  95. A clot or fragment of a clot that has moved in a blood vessel.
  96. Obstruction of a blood vessel caused by a blood clot carried by the blood.
  97. Accumulations of fatty deposits change arterial linings, sometimes initiating inappropriate clotting. Most common cause of thrombosis.
  98. ____ of blood vessel prevents activation of intrinsic blood clotting mechanism.
    smooth lining
  99. Inhibits platelets from sticking to the blood vessel wall.
  100. How do fibrin threads prevent coagulation?
    absorb thrombin so it doesn't spread
  101. In the plasma, this blocks fibrin production, preventing coagulation
  102. To prevent coagulation, ____ from mast cells and basophils in connective tissue interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator.
  103. The first exposure to Rh+ causes Rh- person to produce what?
    anti-Rh antibodies
  104. A second exposure of Rh+ by an Rh- person causes RBC to do what?