These have no nucleus, are about half the size of RBC, 130,000 -360,000 per mm3, and live about 10 days.
Close breaks in vessels by initiating blood clots.
Release serotonin which contracts smooth muscle in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
Contracts smooth musclee in blood vessels and reduces blood flow.
Functions to transport nutrients, gases, and vitamins, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, and helps maintain favorable pH.
Remain in blood and interstitial fluid, NOT used as an energy source, and helps to control blood volume/pressure.
3 main plasma proteins
Albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
60% of plasma proteins, smallest size, helps maintain the osmotic pressure of blood so water stays in capillaries despite blood pressure.
36% of plasma proteins, it transports lipids and fat-soluable vitamins. The antibodies of immunity.
4% of plasma proteins, the largest, functions in clotting blood.
When plasma proteins fall, tissues swell as water moves out of capillaries, due to diet or impaired liver.
The stoppage of bleeding
The three hemostatic mechanisms that control blood loss.
Blood vessel spasm
platelet plug formation
Cutting/breaking a small vessel stimulates smooth muscle to contract (vasospasms) which reduces blood loss. The effects result from direct stimulation of the vessel wall and pain receptors and may last for 30 minutes. A platelet plug forms.
blood vessel spasm
During blood vessel spasms, this is released by the platelets to help vasoconstriction.
Platelets get "hung up" on the collagen fibers in connective tissue that is exposed from a broken vessel, to help stop bleeding.
Platelet plug formation
The most effective hemostatic mechanism results in the formation of a blood clot which can occur extrinsically due to the release of biochemicals from broken vessels and damaged tissues and can occur intrinsically when blood contacts a foreign substance.
What triggers an extrensic clotting mechanism?
Extrensic Clotting Mechanism leads to the release of what from platelets?
In the presence of Ca, prothrombin changes into what?
Thrombin changes soluble _____ into insoluble _____.
What do platelets and blood cells stick to to form a clot?
Explain the positive feedback Extrensic Clotting Mechanism.
As a clot begins to form, it promotes more clotting. Thrombin release causes more prothrombin to form and thus more thrombin.
What type of mechanism is activated when blood comes in contact with a foreign surface like connective tissue, activating the Hageman factor?
Intrinsic clotting mechanism
Explain the Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism.
Blood comes into contact with a foreign surface.
Reactions involving clotting factors and Ca occurs.
Production of prothrombin.
Changes into thrombin.
Thrombin changes fibrinogen into fibrin
Blood clot forms
The fluid part of coagulated blood.
Plasma, minus fibrinogen and most other clotting factors.
A blood clot forming abnormally in a vessel.
A clot or fragment of a clot that has moved in a blood vessel.
Obstruction of a blood vessel caused by a blood clot carried by the blood.
Accumulations of fatty deposits change arterial linings, sometimes initiating inappropriate clotting. Most common cause of thrombosis.
____ of blood vessel prevents activation of intrinsic blood clotting mechanism.
Inhibits platelets from sticking to the blood vessel wall.
How do fibrin threads prevent coagulation?
absorb thrombin so it doesn't spread
In the plasma, this blocks fibrin production, preventing coagulation
To prevent coagulation, ____ from mast cells and basophils in connective tissue interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator.
The first exposure to Rh+ causes Rh- person to produce what?
A second exposure of Rh+ by an Rh- person causes RBC to do what?