Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System

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ginarjones
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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System
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2014-07-15 21:36:17
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heart cardiovascular system anatomy physiology davis icc
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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System ICC:Davis
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  1. Serous membrane, double-layered sac that covers the heart and proximal ends of its large blood vessels.
    pericardium
  2. The inner layer of the sac that covers the heart.
    visceral pericardium
  3. The outer layer of the sac that covers the heart.
    parietal pericardium
  4. The space between the visceral and parietal layers, filled with serous fluid to reduce friction.
    pericardial cavity
  5. Hollow, cone-shaped muscular pump.
    heart
  6. Where is the heart located?
    within the mediastinum of throacic cavity
  7. Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells, carries carbon dioxide and wastes from cells, maintains acid-base balance of blood, protects against disease, prevents hemorrhage by forming blood clots, and helps regulate body temperature.
    Cardiovascular System
  8. ____of the heart is the top and ____ is the bottom.
    • base
    • apex
  9. Same as the visceral pericardium, protective outermost layer, connective tissue covered by epithelium, includes blood and lymph capillaries, fat, and nerve fibers.
    epicardium
  10. Middle layer of the heart wall, consists mainly of cardiac muscle that pumps blood out of chambers, has blood and lymph capillaries and nerve fibers.
    myocardium
  11. Inner lining of the chambers and valves of the heart.
    endocardium
  12. SPecialized cardiac muscle fibers made of epithelium and connective tissue with many collagenous and elastic fibers and blood vessels.
    purkinje fibers
  13. Where are purkinje fibers found?
    endocardium
  14. The upper chambers of the heart which receive blood returning to the heart.
    atria
  15. Earlike projections found outside of each atrium.
    auricles
  16. Lower chambers of the heart, which force blood out.
    ventricles
  17. Seperates the left and right sides of the heart.
    septum
  18. What seperates the left and right atria?
    interatrial septum
  19. What seperates the right and left ventricles?
    interventricular septum
  20. Opening between atrium and ventricle on each side, guarded by an AV valve.
    atrioventricular
  21. Bring deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
    veins
  22. What are the three veins which return blood to the right atrium?
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • coronary sinus
  23. Returns blood from above the heart to the right atrium.
    superior vena cava
  24. Returns blood from below the heart to the right atrium.
    inferior vena cava
  25. Returns blood from the myocardium of the heart to the right atrium.
    coronary sinus
  26. What are the four veins which return blood to the left atrium?
    pulmonary veins
  27. Return blood from the lungs. The only red veins.
    pulmonary veins
  28. The artery which carries blood away from the right ventricle.
    pulmonary trunk
  29. Branches into the right and left pulmonary arteries that carry blood to each lung.
    pulmonary trunk
  30. The artery which carries blood away from the left ventricle.
    aorta
  31. Distributes blood to all parts of the body other than the lungs.
    aorta
  32. Located in the atrioventricular orifice between the atrium and ventricle.
    atrioventricular valves
  33. The valve betweeen the right atrium and right ventricle.
    tricuspid valve
  34. The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle.
    bicuspid (mitral) valve
  35. Valve between the right ventricle and its artery and between the left ventricle and its artery.
    semilunar valves
  36. Valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
    pulmonary (semilunar) valve
  37. Between the left ventricle and the aorta.
    aortic (semilunar) valve
  38. Found in ventricles and contract when ventricles contract, helping to close the tricuspid and bicuspid valves.
    papillary muscles
  39. Fibrous strings that attach muscles and valves.
    chordae tendineae
  40. Papillary muscles and chordae tendineae are not found here.
    semilunar valves
  41. What is the path of blood through the heart?
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • right atrium
    • tricuspid valve
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary valve
    • pulmonary trunk
    • right/left pulmonary arteries
    • lungs (for oxygen)
    • right/left pulmonary veins
    • left atrium
    • bicuspid valve
    • left ventricle
    • aortic semilunar valve
    • aorta
    • all parts of the body
  42. Consists of blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
    pulmonary circuit
  43. Consists of blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body, except the lungs, and back again.
    systemic circuit
  44. Explain coronary circulation.
    The first 2 branches of the aorta are the right and left coronary arteries which supply the heart tissues. Blood leaving heart tissue drains into cardiac veins that join the coronary sinus which empties into the right atrium.
  45. Hooks together the arteries which lead to the digestive organs and hepatic vein.
    hepatic portal system
  46. Provides oxygen to the stomach, liver, duodenum, pancreas, and spleen
    celiac artery
  47. Provides oxygen to the pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
    superior mesentric artery
  48. Where does the hepatic portal system begin and end?
    capillaries
  49. How is blood drained from the abdominal viscera?
    by way of the hepatic portal system
  50. Capillaries from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, and spleen carry blood to the hepatic portal vein leading where?
    the liver
  51. Hepatic portal blood is low in oxygen but rich in what?
    digestive substances or nutrients
  52. Stores nutrients such as glucose, regulates/monitors the level of glucose, and detoxifies poisons and destroys bacteria.
    Liver
  53. Carries digestive substances into the liver where it breaks up into a network of capillaries or sinuses.
    hepatic portal vein
  54. When blood leaves the liver through a series of hepatic veins, where does it go?
    inferior vena cava
  55. A series of contractions that constitutes a complete heart beat.
    cardiac cycle
  56. Blood moves through the heart due to contractions and the natural flow from ___ pressure areas to ____ pressure areas.
    • high
    • low
  57. When the ventricles contract.
    systolic pressure
  58. When the ventricles relax.
    diastolic pressure
  59. During ventricular contraction when A-V valves are closing, what sound do you hear?
    lubb
  60. During ventricular relaxation when the pulmonary and aortic valves are closing, what sound do you hear?
    dupp
  61. What sound does the heartbeat make?
    "lubb-dupp"
  62. An abnormal sound caused by a valve not closing properly and blood leaks by through the valve.
    murmur
  63. A mass of merging muscle fibers that act as a unit.
    functional syncytium
  64. What are atrial cyncytium and ventrical cyncytium connected by?
    fibers of the cardiac conduction system
  65. Specialized muscle tissue that initiates and conducts impulses causing cardiac muscle to contract.
    cardiac conduction system
  66. S-A node
    sinoatrial node
  67. A-V node
    atrioventricular node
  68. A-V bundle/bundle of His
    atrioventricular bundle
  69. What are the components of the cardiac conduction system?
    S-A node, A-V node, A-V bundle, purkinje fibers
  70. Found in the posterior wall of the right atrium, this sets the basic pace for the heart rate and initiates each cardiac cycle.
    S-A node
  71. Located in the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum, impulses travel from here to the A-V bundle.
    A-V node
  72. Branches that lead to purkinje fibers.
    A-V bundle
  73. Located in the endocardium of the ventricles, impulse travels along these to cardiac muscle causing ventricles to contract.
    purkinje fibers
  74. A recording of waves that reflect the electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle.
    electrocardiogram (ECG)
  75. Small upward waves on an ECG.
    P-wave
  76. Leads to the contraction of the atria, the spread of an impulse from the S-A node through the two atria.
    atrial depolarization
  77. Small downward, then large upright wave on an ECG which ends as a downward wave.
    QRS complex
  78. Leads to the contraction of the ventricles, the spread of the impulse through the ventricles.
    ventricular depolarization
  79. Upward wave on an ECG
    T-wave
  80. On an ECG, what is happening during a T-wave?
    ventricular repolarization
  81. Skeletal muscles require more blood so the heart rate increases in response.
    physical exercise
  82. Cause heart action to decrease, arising from the medulla oblongata and are part of the vagus nerve.
    parasympathetic impulses
  83. Cause heart action to increase, arising from the spinal cord and are part of the accelerator nerves.
    sympathetic impulses
  84. What does increased temp do to your heart rate?
    increases heart rate
  85. What does decreased temp do to your heart rate?
    decreases heart rate
  86. What does excess K+ do to heart rate?
    decrease rate and force of contractions
  87. What does excess Ca2+ do to heart rate?
    increase heart action
  88. Fast heartbeat (over 100/min), causes: increase in body temp, stimulation by sympathetic fibers, drugs and hormones, heart disease, excitement, exercise
    tachycardia
  89. Slow heart rate (less 60/min) Causes: decreased body temp, stimulation from parasympathetic fibers, drugs, sleeps, athletes.
    bradycardia
  90. (Premature) impulse originates from site other than the S-A node.
    ectopic beat
  91. Heart contracts regularly but very rapidly (250-350/min)
    flutter
  92. Uncoordinated contractions, atrial not life threating but ventricular may be fatal.
    fibrillation
  93. General pathway of blood vessels.
    • heart
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • heart
  94. Arterial wall made of endothelium of squamous epithelium for a smooth interior surface, connective tissue with elastic and collagenous fibers.
    tunica intima
  95. Arterial wall made of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue.
    tunica media
  96. Arterial wall made of a thin layer of connective tissue that attaches to surrounding tissue.
    tunica externa
  97. Branches in arterioles that join capillaries.
    metarterioles
  98. Bypass capillaries and lead to venules.
    atreriovenous shunts
  99. Connect arterioles and venules.
    capillaries
  100. Flow in capillaries is regulated by ____, open when cells are low in O2 and nutrients.
    precapillary sphincters
  101. Permits transfer of substances between tissues and blood.
    capillary exchange (microcirculation)
  102. Bidirectional governed by concentration gradients. Most important means of transport.
    difussion
  103. Caused by blood pressure and osmotic pressure do to the effect of plasma proteins.
    filtration
  104. Another name for blood pressure
    hydrostatic pressure
  105. At the arteriolar end of the capillaries, bp is higher than osmotic pressure, so ____ predominates.
    filtration
  106. At the venular end, the osmotic pressure stays the same, but the bp decreases, so ____ predominates.
    reabsorption
  107. Filtration ____ along the capillary
    decreases
  108. Normally, more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns. Excess fluid is collected by ____ and returned through the ____.
    • lymphatic capillaries
    • lymphatic vessels
  109. Fluid in the blood minus the plasma proteins.
    lymph
  110. Connect capillaries to veins with walls that are similar to arteriole walls but thinner and less muscle/elastic tissue is present.
    venules
  111. Return blood to the heart, similar walls to arteries but thinner with less muscle and elastic tissue, and can contain valves.
    veins
  112. 70% of blood is found here and is referred to as what?
    • systemic veins
    • blood reservoir
  113. Due to decreased filtration at the venules and the inability of the right ventricle of the heart to pump blood out as rapidly as it enters, ____ may occur.
    edema
  114. Functions as blood reservoirs so that bp will be maintained in times of blood loss.
    veins
  115. How much blood volume can be lost and still maintain normal blood flow?
    25%
  116. An accumulation of fatty material (plaque) inside an artery
    atherosclerosis
  117. The state of atherosclerosis in which the arteries harden.
    arteriosclerosis
  118. An artery dilates and forms and pulsating sac.
    aneurysm
  119. An inflammation of a vein.
    phlebitis
  120. The presence of abnormal dilations in superficial veins.
    varicose veins
  121. What are the risk factors of varicose veins?
    • heredity (more common in women)
    • hormones
    • obesity
    • aging
    • prolonged periods of standing
  122. The force exerted by the blood against the inner walls of blood vessels.
    blood pressure
  123. Where is blood pressure normally taken?
    brachial artery
  124. Normal systolic pressure/diastolic pressure.
    120/80
  125. Blood pressure ____ as it moves through the arterial system.
    decreases
  126. Where is there no blood pressure?
    veins
  127. Blood in veins moves by:
    • skeletal movement
    • breathing
    • vasoconstriction of veins

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